Since the mother or doctor reported that every healthy woman has spotting from the genital tract every month, there has been no additional input data.
They don’t discuss this topic with friends: it’s too intimate, and magazines and doctors talk about it only when everything is frankly bad: severe PMS, amenorrhea and other pathologies. Therefore, today gynecologist Nona Hovsepyan, consultant doctor of the independent INVITRO laboratory, speaks about the norm. And about small deviations that you need to pay attention to.
- The first menstruation (menarche) during normal puberty occurs between 11 and 15 years of age. But in recent years there has been a trend towards an earlier start – from 9-10 years.
The beginning and end of menstruation (three to four days before and the same number of days after) should not normally be accompanied by dark brown discharge (sanitary). If this happens every month, you should consult a gynecologist for an examination. Also, the presence of intermenstrual bloody or sanious discharge should alert. Most often, this is a sign of endometriosis of the body of the uterus (adenomyosis).
- Not all women have PMS (premenstrual syndrome). Hormonal changes in the second phase of the menstrual cycle (after ovulation) are associated with an increase in progesterone levels and are individual in everyone. Accordingly, the manifestations of PMS in all women are observed in varying degrees of severity. Hormonal contraceptives that “cancel” ovulation and even out the hormonal background can also “cancel” PMS.
- The average volume of blood loss during menstruation (for four to five days) is 200-300 ml. That is, a tampon or pads of normal size (super – on the second, most “abundant” day of menstruation) should be enough for you for three to four hours. With very heavy menstrual flow, when you have to change tampons or pads every two hours, blood loss can reach 400-500 ml. In this case, to prevent the development of anemia, on the recommendation of the attending physician, after assessing the level of hemoglobin, you can take iron supplements.
- During menstruation, many women have increased sexual desire. This is due to a decrease in progesterone levels.
- Sex during menstruation increases the risk of developing endometriosis, one of the theories of the development of which is the retrograde reflux of menstrual blood.
- Pregnancy during menstruation is theoretically possible, but unlikely. However, if you are not planning a pregnancy, then you should use contraception during the entire cycle, including on the days of menstruation.
- There is no menstruation during pregnancy. Blood discharge of any nature during gestation, especially in the first trimester, indicates the presence of a threat of termination of pregnancy. It is necessary to contact the attending gynecologist as soon as possible. It is worth noting that some pregnant women may have bloody discharge on the days of the expected menstruation. But even in this case, you need to contact a specialist so that he excludes the threat of abortion.
- The highest chances of conception are the day of ovulation and the first two days after it. With a normal 28-day menstrual cycle, ovulation occurs on days 14-15 of the cycle, that is, two weeks from the first day of menstruation and two weeks before the next one.
- For the entire reproductive period, until the onset of natural menopause (without surgery), a woman has about 500 menstrual cycles.