Reason 1: acute pain
Let’s start with emergency situations in which you should immediately call an ambulance.
The sudden onset of a sharp pain in the lower abdomen, regardless of its nature (pulling, stabbing, cutting), especially in the presence of other complaints (fever, nausea, vomiting, loss of consciousness), may be a symptom of a serious illness that threatens the life of a woman, requiring urgent therapeutic measures, including surgery.
Often arising in the lower abdomen, acute pain may give into the rectum, accompanied by loss of consciousness. Such complaints are possible with bleeding into the abdominal cavity, which develops with the following gynecological pathologies:
termination of an ectopic pregnancy – rupture of the fallopian tube due to the growth of the embryo in it; an emergency operation is required, since bleeding from a ruptured pipe can be significant (up to 1 liter!), And this poses a threat to the patient’s life;
ovarian apoplexy – this is a rupture of the ovary or its cyst, which occurs either spontaneously during the period of ovulation, on the 12-15th day of the menstrual cycle, or in the second phase of the cycle, on the 16-28th day, more often after physical exertion, including after sexual intercourse.
Often, ovarian apoplexy causes severe blood loss, in connection with which an operation is performed. In the case of minor damage to the ovary and minor blood loss, conservative therapy is sufficient.
The tactics are determined by the doctor. It is important not to waste time and understand the situation.
The pain is often accompanied by an increase in body temperature, which may indicate the presence of an inflammatory process in the genital organs.
Be sure to call an ambulance if pain and hyperthermia appear:
after an abortion or other intrauterine intervention (hysteroscopy, hysteroresection, myomectomy), since the development of the inflammatory process of the uterus – endomyometritis is not excluded; antibacterial treatment is required, as well as, in the presence of remnants of the fetal egg after an abortion, their emergency removal;
after unprotected intercourse as a result of inflammation of the uterine appendages, often accompanied by pelvioperitonitis – inflammation of the pelvic peritoneum; infusion, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory therapy is necessary, which will allow you to get a quick effect and prevent a possible operation;
against the background of the use of an intrauterine device (IUD), especially if it was installed more than 2 years ago, as this is a risk factor for the occurrence of endomyometritis; in such a situation, immediate removal of the IUD and anti-inflammatory therapy is necessary; timely treatment avoids emergency surgery, including removal of the uterus.
Pain in the lower abdomen may be cramping and accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and dry mouth.
If such complaints appeared in a woman who has not visited a gynecologist for a long time, as well as in a patient who is being observed for an ovarian tumor or uterine fibroids, urgent need to call an ambulance.
The occurrence of life-threatening diseases is not excluded:
torsion of an ovarian tumor;
malnutrition in the myomatous node;
torsion of the leg of the subserous myomatous node.
Reason 2: chronic pain
Very often, a woman is disturbed by recurrent or persistent mild or moderate pain in the lower abdomen, which do not require urgent medical attention, but, nevertheless, cause discomfort and interfere with sexual life. Chronic pelvic pain is a symptom of the following gynecological pathology:
chronic inflammation of the uterine appendages;
adhesions in the pelvis;
expansion of the veins of the small pelvis;
apoplexy of the ovary of a painful form (without intra-abdominal bleeding).
If you have chronic pelvic pain, it is not necessary to call an ambulance immediately, but you should not put off a visit to the doctor for a long time. It is better to deal with this problem and find out the cause of the pain.
The standard set of examinations in the presence of chronic pain syndrome includes the following diagnostic methods:
Ultrasound of the pelvic organs;
smears for the degree of purity of the vagina and flora;
examination for sexual infections;
a blood test for the CA-125 tumor marker, which increases with endometriosis.
If gynecological pathology is excluded, refer to other specialists, since pain in the lower abdomen can also be caused by surgical (colitis, appendicitis), urological (urolithiasis, pyelonephritis), as well as diseases of the musculoskeletal system (osteochondrosisherniated disc).
Reason 3: White
It is worth deciding to make an unscheduled visit to the doctor if you have discharge (leucorrhea) and itching caused by vulvovaginitis – inflammation of the vagina and external genitalia. This disease is not life-threatening, but requires careful examination and treatment, especially in a situation where leucorrhea appeared 1-4 days after unprotected sex.
Even if, as it seems to you, the “chronic thrush” has worsened, in any case, you should consult a gynecologist and take smears on the flora to select adequate therapy.
Problems during pregnancy
Reason 4: contact highlights
A reasoned reason for going to the doctor is spotting bloody discharge from the vagina after intercourse. Their appearance is highly likely to indicate the presence of pathology of the cervix.
If such complaints occur, the following investigations should be carried out:
cytological examination scraping of the epithelium of the cervix and cervical mucosa;
cervical biopsy with diagnostic curettage of the mucous membrane of the cervical canal – if necessary.
There is a misconception that nulliparous women do not need to treat the cervix, as this will cause the formation of rough scars. Currently, there is a wide arsenal of highly effective, absolutely safe treatments that are gentle on the cervix:
radio wave surgery.
Traditional medicine (honey, urine therapy, tampons with sea buckthorn oil, etc.) is powerless in the pathology of the cervix! Don’t waste your time!
Timely detection and proper treatment of diseases of the cervix is the prevention precancer and cancer cervix, which is now very “younger”. Surgery for cervical cancer is possible only in the early stages.
Reason 5: problems in menopause
A serious reason for an emergency visit to the doctor is the appearance of bleeding in postmenopausal women, except when a woman uses hormone replacement therapy (HRT).
There should not be “not a drop of blood” in the menopause. Blood discharge during this period indicates the presence of endometrial pathology: hyperplasia, polyp, precancer or endometrial cancer.
In such a situation, it is necessary to consult a doctor and undergo a complete examination:
Ultrasound of the pelvic organs;
aspiration biopsy of the endometrium;
hysteroscopy and separate diagnostic curettage of the uterine mucosa and cervical canal.
Hysteroscopy is a modern informative diagnostic method that allows you to identify all intrauterine pathology, if necessary, to remove the altered endometrium.
Diagnostic curettage without hysteroscopy is not recommended because of the low information content.
After receiving the results of hysteroscopy and histological examination of scrapings, the doctor determines the tactics of management and chooses one of the methods for treating endometrial pathology:
ablation of the endometrium (thermo-, electro- or laser);
surgical treatment – removal of the uterus.
Reason 6: bleeding during pregnancy
If the duration of your pregnancy is from 5 to 12 weeks, and against its background there are spotting bloody discharge from the vagina, you should urgently consult a gynecologist, as this indicates a miscarriage that has begun.
With timely started well-conducted therapy, pregnancy can be saved.
Moderate or profuse bleeding is a symptom of an abortion in progress. In this case, emergency intervention is necessary to remove the remnants of the fetal egg.
Reason 7: Heavy periods
If you have heavy periods with clots lasting more than 7-8 days, as well as spotting either before or after your period, or bleeding between periods, this may indicate the presence of the following gynecological pathology:
submucosal myomatous node;
Most often, with heavy menstruation or bleeding, anemia of varying severity is noted, accompanied by weakness, hair lossbrittle nails, tachycardia, pain in the heart, heart rhythm disturbances.
In the presence of heavy menstruation or bleeding, in order to clarify the diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo an examination, including ultrasound of the pelvic organs and hysteroscopy.
Currently, all intrauterine pathology is being treated! Organ-preserving methods of treatment, in which the uterus is not removed, are widely used.
Also, a woman who has heavy menstruation needs to monitor the level of hemoglobin.
With a significant decrease (less than 100 g / l), antianemic drug treatment should be performed. Only a diet with an increased intake of iron-containing foods (liver, pomegranates, etc.) is ineffective in such situations!
Reason 8: painful induration
Often a woman feels a formation in the perineum near the entrance to the vagina, which can be painful. This is a cyst of the Bartholin gland, which is formed when its excretory duct is blocked.
When injured, the cyst suppurates, bartholinitis or an abscess of the Bartholin gland occurs, accompanied by sharp pains in the perineum and fever.
In such a situation, it is necessary to carry out an emergency intervention (marsupialization operation) – opening the cyst, evacuating pus, washing the cyst cavity and restoring the excretory duct of the gland.
If you yourself have identified a Bartholin gland cyst in yourself, do not wait until it fester! Contact a gynecologist in a timely manner!
The planned opening of the cyst in the “cold” period will be safer for you.
Reason 9: belly enlargement
A rare symptom that can make a woman turn to a gynecologist is a sharp increase and induration of the abdomen. Excluding pregnancy, the cause of such a complaint may be:
uterine fibroids gigantic sizes (can reach 30 weeks of pregnancy!);
ovarian tumor large sizes;
malignant tumor uterus (sarcoma);
ascites with ovarian cancer.
See your doctor regularly – once every six months. Love yourself! Appreciate your health!
When the neck hurts: causes and consequences
Why your back hurts: protect your spine
Energy of life: what vitamins are you lacking?
Gastritis: symptoms and prevention
How to stay healthy in the office?
Swelling of the legs: 6 ways to solve the problem