Asthma has been known to mankind for a long time, since the time of Ancient Greece, when this disease was simply called: suffocation. Why it occurs and how to deal with it, says Goodshapetips.
Since the time of Hippocrates, of course, much has changed. Today, asthma is correctly diagnosed, easily classified and successfully treated. But the cases of the disease are not getting smaller: according to international statistics, about 6% of the world’s population suffer from this pathology. Let’s talk in detail about one of its varieties. Atopic bronchial asthma, in other words, non-infectious-allergic, occurs in 15% of cases and is caused by contact with non-infectious allergens.
Causes of atopic asthma
First, a lot depends on the genetic predisposition. For example, if one of the parents or relatives suffers from asthma, it is possible with a 40% probability to assume the development of this disease in a child.
Secondly, there are allergens, upon meeting with which an allergic reaction of an immediate type is triggered in the body, which means that very little time passes from the moment of inhalation contact with the allergen until the first symptoms of bronchial asthma appear. A wide variety of substances can act as such allergens: wood, household or medicinal dust, animal hair, plant pollen, fungal spores, mites, and so on.
Thirdly, we must not forget about the factors that largely contribute to the development of bronchial asthma. These are bad ecology, smoking, long-term use of certain medicines, frequent infectious diseases that weaken the immune system.
How are the types of atopic asthma different?
Depending on the allergen, the main types of atopic bronchial asthma are distinguished.
Household or dusty is the most common type of asthma. It usually develops with the onset of the heating season, but given the highly variable composition of house dust, asthma symptoms can occur throughout the year. This type of asthma is characterized by a rapid improvement in the patient’s state of health when he leaves the house and the resumption of symptoms of suffocation when he returns.
Fungal atopic bronchial asthma_,_ the seasonality of which depends on the period of spore formation in the pathogenic fungi that caused it. The concentration of spores of many of them increases in the second half of the day, in the late afternoon, so attacks often occur at night.
pollen asthma usually proceeds easily. As soon as the concentration of pollen in the surrounding air rises, symptoms of conjunctivitis and rhinitis appear in people prone to allergies, then the picture of bronchial asthma itself develops. Often the symptoms of pollen asthma develop when eating foods related to certain pollen, and this can occur at any time of the year. For example, if you are allergic to walnut pollen, it is enough to eat a few nuts, and eating fresh pastries can provoke the onset of symptoms of an allergy to cereal pollen.
epidermal atopic bronchial asthma provoked by hair and skin derivatives of various animals. It is relatively rare compared to other types of asthma, and in most cases is an occupational disease of livestock keepers and research laboratory workers. From domestic animals, cats most often become carriers of allergens, since their hair and saliva have powerful allergenic activity.
Symptoms of atopic bronchial asthma
Symptoms usually first appear before the age of 10 years. It is generally accepted that boys are more susceptible to this disease.
The doctor examining the patient will definitely ask if the child has exudative diathesis, eczema, dermatitis, or cases of food or drug allergies, since these diseases are usually accompanied by atopic bronchial asthma.
In addition, in 50% of cases, asthma develops against the background of respiratory
diseases, and the first symptoms of suffocation occur at the height of the infectious process and are accompanied by sneezing, nasal congestion and runny nose.
The asthma attacks themselves usually appear at night, often preceded by itching in the nose and urticaria, and they end either on their own, quickly enough, or are easily removed by the appropriate medications prescribed by the doctor. Sometimes at the end of the attack, the patient coughs with a discharge of a small amount of clear sputum.
Infrequently, but it is still possible to develop a delayed-type allergic reaction, when after contact with the allergen it takes from 4 to 12 hours, and the symptoms of suffocation last up to two days, even against the background of the use of bronchodilators.
In the first years of the disease, periods without attacks are long, but over time, in the absence of adequate treatment and with frequent contact with allergens, remissions are shortened and late complications may occur. The forms of atopic bronchial asthma caused by several heterogeneous allergens are most difficult to treat.
The sooner treatment is started, the more stable the patient’s condition will be. Depending on the frequency and intensity of seizures, four stages of the course of the process are distinguished:
- mild intermittent stage – attacks occur no more than once a week, and no more than two nocturnal attacks occur per month;
- mild persistent Seizures occur more frequently than once a week, but not more than once a day. Nighttime choking may occur more than twice a month;
- middle stage – attacks overtake the patient almost daily, disturbing sleep and reducing physical activity;
- severe stage – asthma reminds of itself constantly, attacks occur more than three times a day.
The condition of a patient in the so-called “asthmatic status” is considered extremely difficult, when it is almost impossible to breathe, and medications do not bring relief.
Treatment of atopic bronchial asthma
An experienced doctor will prescribe a complex treatment, including elimination therapy, specific hyposensitization and drug therapy.
Elimination therapy is to avoid contact with the allergen. In some cases, a change of work is necessary if the disease is associated with the conditions and specifics of work, the removal of animals from the living quarters, special antifungal treatment of housing, the elimination of feather pillows and duvets from everyday life, regular wet cleaning, an adjusted diet with the exclusion of allergenic products.
Specific hyposensitization usually appropriate when it is impossible to completely eliminate contact with the allergen. In such cases, use histoglobulin, intal, ephedrine.
Medical therapy assigned based on the stage of the process. In the acute period, desensitizing and anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as bronchodilators, are used. In the stage of the subsidence of the process and in remission, immunocorrective drugs are used. The issue of prescribing antibacterial drugs requires careful medical supervision, since some antibiotics can also act as allergens.
A variety of physiotherapeutic procedures, exercise therapy, reflexology, as well as spa treatment have a very good effect.
Atopic bronchial asthma in pregnant women
It is very important to understand that today asthma is not a contraindication to the birth of children. This disease cannot be cured, but it is very possible to keep it under control, keeping your health normal.
Interestingly, asthma in pregnant women proceeds in different ways: patients may notice both improvement in their condition and worsening, and some do not notice any changes at all. By the way, only 14% of expectant mothers begin to feel better, but the rest can successfully control their condition.
The greatest risk is the lack of oxygen in the blood – hypoxia, which can interfere with the normal development of the fetus. But the problem is solvable, one has only to follow all the recommendations of the doctor and maintain their condition in the normal range. The prognosis for babies whose mothers clearly controlled their disease is no different from the generally accepted for all newborns. Therefore, the best option is to consult a doctor already at the stage of pregnancy planning, and then everything will be in perfect order.
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