Avitaminosis is a lack of vitamins in the body, which leads to a weakening of the immune system, and, therefore, to an exacerbation of chronic diseases and the emergence of new, viral ones.
Experts explain the disease with beriberi by the fact that in winter most people eat much less vegetables and fruits than in summer. In addition, before getting to our table, fruits and vegetables are transported for a long time, stored, processed with special means for longer storage, during which most of their useful properties are lost along with vitamins and microelements.
Symptoms of beriberi
Vitamin A deficiency
- hemeralopia (night – or “chicken” – blindness)
- xerophthalmia (dryness of the conjunctiva)
- keratomalacia (corneal ulceration), hyperkeratosis (dryness, peeling and pallor of the skin, keratinization of hair follicles; atrophy of sweat and sebaceous glands)
- pustular skin diseases, infectious lesions of the respiratory system, urination, digestive tract
- general malaise
weakness; in children – growth and developmental delay, neurological disorders
Vitamin B deficiency
- irritability or lethargy
- polyneuritis of the upper and lower extremities
- paresthesia (impaired skin sensitivity)
- dyspeptic disorders
- loss of appetite, anorexia
- stomatitis, glossitis (tongue bright red, dry)
- dermatitis of the face, scalp, neck, dry itchy dermatitis on the hands
- hypochromic anemia
- weight loss
- blurred vision
- burning sensation of the skin
- pain in the eyes, the appearance of conjunctivitis
shortness of breath and palpitations on exertion
Vitamin C deficiency
- general weakness
- increased fragility of capillaries with the formation of bruises, bleeding from the gums, hemorrhagic effusions in the joints and pleura
- dystrophic changes in the mucous membranes
Vitamin D deficiency
- in children – rickets
- unmotivated weakness
- demineralization of teeth with rapid progression
- bone pain, muscle pain
- paresthesia (impaired skin sensitivity)
increased risk of diabetes, hypertension and cancer
Vitamin E deficiency
fatty liver (fatty liver)
Lack of vitamin PP (nicotinic acid) – pellagra
- loss of appetite
- dryness and burning in the mouth
- diarrhea alternating with constipation
- general progressive weakness
- tongue bright red, edematous with painful ulceration, later varnish
- Achilles occurs (absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach)
- general irritability
- in severe cases, convulsions, ataxia occur, sometimes dementia develops
- erythema (reddening of the skin), accompanied by skin itching, hyperpigmentation (mainly on open areas of the body and extremities), skin peeling
hypoproteinemia (low protein in the blood)
Vitamin K deficiency
- poor wound healing
(It is extremely rare – most often in people with problems with the production and release of bile.)
How to deal with avitaminosis?
The prevention of vitamin deficiency is the intake of vitamin complexes. Separately, I would like to note that vitamins should be taken at least three times a day – they are not stored “in reserve” (except for vitamins A, D, E, K), and from the morning portion of vitamin preparations the body will take only the dose that is needed for this point in time – all excess will be excreted in the urine, and the need for vitamins will arise even in the afternoon and evening.
Do not take chemical vitamins uncontrollablyA: Too much vitamin is just as bad as too little.
But vitamins in capsules, tablets or potions are chemical preparations, so they are absorbed in our body much more slowly and worse than “live” vitamins contained in fresh vegetables and fruits.
What products are most useful?
–Vitamin Afound in butter, egg yolk, liver (especially fish and marine animals), carrots. Provitamin A (carotene) is a substance from which the human body synthesizes vitamin A. It is found in carrots, sweet peppers, sea buckthorn, wild rose, green onions, parsley, sorrel.
–Vitamin Bfound in many products of plant and animal origin, the maximum content is noted in yeast, milk, cheese, cottage cheese, germinated cereal grains, unprocessed grains, wholemeal bread, legumes, kidneys, liver, beef and egg yolk.
–Vitamin Cis found in grapefruits, lemons, rose hips, many berries and fruits, cabbage (including sauerkraut) – but only if these products have not been cooked.
–Vitamin Dmostly produced by the action of sunlight. But still, in small quantities, it is also found in food – butter, milk, egg yolk, liver and adipose tissue of cod and some other fish and marine animals.
–Vitamin Efound in sprouted grains of cereals, green parts of vegetables and a number of wild plants, sunflower oil. For its absorption, a normal level of zinc (found in eggplant, cucumbers, tomatoes, offal, oysters, mushrooms and pumpkin) and selenium (contains its coconut, lard, garlic, sea fish, porcini mushrooms, eggs, sunflower seeds, lentils, coarse bread grinding, offal). But sweet and starchy foods interfere with its absorption in the body.
–A nicotinic acidis found in brewer’s and baker’s yeast and dried porcini mushrooms, as well as in wholemeal bread, cereals, liver, heart, kidneys, meat, legumes, fish.
–Vitamin Kwhite and cauliflower, tomatoes, pumpkin, pork liver are rich. Quite a lot of it in carrots, beets, potatoes, legumes, wheat and oats.
To keep vitamins in foods longer:
Choose strong, firm fruits. Overripe and softened vegetables and fruits contain less vitamins.
Buy vegetables and fruits regularly, do not buy them for future use, as the amount of vitamins in plucked fruits decreases every hour.
Do not leave fruits or vegetables in water – they lose vitamins faster.
Do not neglect frozen vegetables and fruits. they are usually frozen shortly after harvest. And the vegetables and fruits that you buy at the market or in the store go all the way to the counter in more than one week.
Do not cook vegetables in large amounts of water. And cooking in a steam or microwave oven preserves vitamins and minerals much better.
If possible, use cereals that are not crushed – they retain more nutrients.
Roast meat, fish, and vegetables in foil to retain both flavor and nutrients.
Some believe that ready-made vegetable dishes can be stored in the cold for a long time. Wrong opinion. Many vegetable dishes quickly lose vitamin C even at low temperatures. For example, stewed cabbage loses 90 percent of this vitamin in a day, and boiled and chopped potatoes lose 40 percent of vitamin C after 4 hours.
Very careful handling requires the most valuable winter source of vitamin C – sauerkraut. Taken out of the brine, after 3 hours it loses a third of vitamin C, and after 12 hours – half. Therefore, if it is not possible to store sauerkraut in brine, it must be immediately either used for food or subjected to heat treatment (boil, stew, etc.). Freezing sauerkraut reduces the vitamin C content by 20-40 percent.
So that peeled potatoes do not darken, many store them in water. But this can be done only for a short time, since valuable nitrogenous substances pass from the outer layers into the water and vitamin C is destroyed.
When defrosting meat, you need to remember: the slower this process goes, the less meat juice and nutrients (including vitamins) are lost. It is best to defrost meat in the refrigerator by placing it in a pot or bowl and covering it with a damp cloth. At the same time, ice crystals melt slowly, and part of the resulting moisture has time to be absorbed into the muscle fibers, which swell and largely restore their properties. If the meat needs to be thawed faster, it is left at room temperature for 2-3 hours. Do not defrost meat in warm, much less hot water.