Dyskinesia (dysfunction) of the biliary tract is a malfunction of the muscles of the gallbladder and bile ducts, as a result of which the timely flow of bile into the duodenum is disrupted.
This is a very common pathology. Women get sick more often.
The gallbladder acts as a reservoir where bile secreted by the liver accumulates and is stored. Under the influence of food entering the duodenum, the hormone cholecystokinin is released. This hormone causes the gallbladder to contract, but at the same time relaxes the sphincter on the path of bile to the intestines. The autonomic nervous system also plays a role in the regulation of the gallbladder. Bile from the bladder through the ducts enters the intestine, mixes with the secretion of the pancreas and ensures the digestion of food, the absorption of nutrients, and plays an antibacterial role in the intestinal tube.
The mechanism of production, accumulation and timely entry of bile into the intestine is very complex, a failure at any stage is enough for signs of dyskinesia to appear.
Causes of biliary dyskinesia
- functional disorder of the innervation of the gallbladder wall and biliary tract
- inflammatory diseases of the gallbladder, duodenum, liver, stomach, pancreas
- postcholecystectomy syndrome
There are two forms of dyskinesia: hypertonic-hyperkinetic and hypotonic-hypokinetic.
Biliary dyskinesia by hypertensive type
This type of dyskinesia is usually characteristic of women with an asthenic physique, with an unstable emotional sphere. Often such patients suffer from vegetative-vascular dystonia.
The main manifestation of hypertensive dyskinesia is pain in the right hypochondrium, extending to the lower jaw, back, neck. The pain is acute, cramping, high intensity, reminiscent of colic. An attack of pain provokes an error in the diet: fatty, fried, spicy, smoked. The pain lasts about 30-40 minutes after eating and is relieved by antispasmodics (No-shpa, Platifillin, Belalgin, etc.).
Read more: How to treat dyskinesia?
Dyskinesia by hypotonic type
This disorder is characteristic of obese and inactive people. Their gallbladder is relaxed, poorly reduced. Bile stagnates, which can lead to the formation of stones. After eating, bile does not completely enter the intestines, it is not enough for proper digestion.
The symptoms of dyspepsia come to the fore: heaviness in the abdomen, pulling pains in the right hypochondrium, aggravated after a heavy meal, bloating, nausea, stool disorder with a predominance of constipation.
Diagnosis and treatment of biliary dyskinesia
When conducting laboratory blood tests, an increase in liver tests, bilirubin levels, disorders of fat metabolism and cholesterol metabolism can be detected.
To confirm the clinical diagnosis, ultrasound diagnostics of the gallbladder and liver, cholecystography (X-ray examination of the gallbladder), probing, as well as functional tests with various drugs are prescribed.
A healthy lifestyle is of great importance in the treatment of dyskinesia, since most often problems with the release of bile into the intestines are of a functional nature. With the restoration of a normal rhythm of nutrition, the development of a complete diet, with the correct mode of work and rest, the function of the biliary system is restored completely.
Meals should be strictly on the clock, at least 4 times a day. You need to avoid sharp fluctuations in the amount of food, you should not experiment with diets and exotic foods. For the gallbladder, foods high in animal fats, fried, smoked, spicy and spicy are harmful.
Depending on the form of dyskinesia, drug correction is prescribed. This may be taking antispasmodics or, on the contrary, choleretic agents that cause the gallbladder to contract well, hepatoprotectors, agents that restore the normal composition of bile and prevent stone formation.
In some cases, surgical correction of dyskinesia is indicated.