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Cataract (thorn) is a disease of the lens of the eye, as a result of which it loses its transparency.

Cataracts most often develop with age, but there are cases of the disease in very young people. The cause of cataracts is considered to be a malnutrition of the lens – the natural lens of the eye.

Predisposing factors

  • heredity
  • influence of harmful factors: chemical, physical (including radiation)
  • eye infections
  • eye injury
  • smoking
  • eye diseases (nearsightedness, glaucoma)
  • endocrine disorders
  • malnutrition

The lens is located in front of the eye. All the light entering the eye passes through it. By changing its curvature and refractive power, the lens allows you to focus the image on the retina, thereby providing clear vision.

Symptoms of a cataract

With the development of cataracts, the lens tissue gradually becomes cloudy, first at the edges, which does not greatly affect vision, then in the central optical region through which the main beam of light rays passes. A person has a feeling of fuzzy vision of objects, which gradually progresses. Foci of turbidity, fogging, strokes, doubling appear in the field of view, which interfere with a thorough examination of objects, work with small details, reading, writing, etc.

Outwardly, a cataract looks like clouding of the pupil of the eye. First along the edges, and then closer to the center. The result of the disease is a complete clouding of the lens – a cataract or a mature cataract. In this case the lens instead of black looks like white or with a bluish tint. Vision in this case is reduced down to light perception, that is, a person is able to distinguish only light and darkness.

Read more: How to treat cataract?

The duration of the disease is individual for everyone, on average it is 3-6 years. Most often, clouding affects both eyes to varying degrees. Modern ophthalmology has good methods of cataract treatment, which give excellent results. However, it is extremely important not to miss the moment and seek medical help in time. If you delay the treatment in the eye, irreversible changes can occur, which will be very difficult to correct.

Diagnosis and treatment of cataracts

If the above symptoms appear, you should consult an ophthalmologist – an eye doctor. A specialist, carefully examining your eye with a special lamp, will be able to identify the initial manifestations of a cataract.

In order to slow down the progress of the disease, vitamin preparations, means that improve the nutrition of the eye, visual disorders are corrected, and gymnastics for the eyes are prescribed.

If the lens is already significantly clouded (mature cataract), surgical treatment is prescribed. With the help of modern techniques, this operation does not require heavy anesthesia and is indicated for people of all ages. During the operation, the old cloudy lens is removed, and an artificial intraocular lens is placed in its place. Thus, vision is fully restored.


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