diabetes mellitus

Health Tips

Diabetes diabetes is a disease associated with insufficient production of insulin or its inability to be absorbed by the cells of the body. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas (the islets of Langerhans) that helps process and break down sugar in the blood.

High blood sugar in diabetics can lead to serious complications. The most common of them: heart attacks, strokes, retinal detachment with the development of blindness, kidney failure, gangrene of the lower extremities, etc.

To avoid these and other formidable complications, it is necessary to maintain normal blood sugar levels. To do this, you need to start treatment in a timely manner and strictly adhere to medical recommendations. Currently, diabetes is a disease that can be fully controlled.

What can lead to the development of diabetes?

  • Obesity
  • Diseases of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
  • Severe illnesses
  • Excessive consumption of fatty, fried and smoked foods
  • stress
  • Endocrine disorders (menopause, pregnancy, abortion)
  • Excessive drinking
  • Acute viral infection or intoxication
  • Heredity (if your parents or close relatives have diabetes, then your chances of getting sick increase several times, and even if your blood sugar is normal, you should limit your sugar intake)

Symptoms of Diabetes

  • frequent and profuse urination (more than 2 liters per day)
  • thirst
  • dry mouth
  • itchy skin, especially in the perineum
  • increased appetite
  • sudden change in body weight
  • weakness, apathy, fatigue

If such symptoms appear, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor, without waiting for the development of life-threatening conditions.

Diagnosis of diabetes

There are several criteria for diabetes:

  1. The concentration of glucose in the blood. Diagnostic is an elevated fasting blood sugar with several measurements on different days. A single rise in blood glucose is not a sign of diabetes. In disputable cases, a sugar load test is performed.
  2. The appearance of glucose in the urine.
  3. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin in the blood. It is often used to assess compensation for already diagnosed diabetes. The test shows how blood sugar has changed over time.
  4. Content of C-peptide allows you to assess the functional state of pancreatic cells that produce insulin.

Types of Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes – the most unfavorable. It develops in children or adolescents and requires the initial administration of insulin from outside, because. in this case, there is an almost complete death of the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. As a rule, it is hereditary. People with this form of diabetes are more prone to hyperglycemic, more severe, coma.

type 2 diabetes – more favorable. It develops after 35-40 years and is associated with a decrease in the sensitivity of cells to an increase in blood sugar and, accordingly, inadequate insulin production.

In this case, treatment begins with tablets (lowering blood sugar levels).

And only with the ineffectiveness of such therapy, insulin is prescribed.

How to prevent the occurrence of diabetes?

  • Blood glucose should be monitored at least twice a year
  • Avoid weight gain and maintain an active lifestyle
  • Do not abuse alcohol and fatty foods
  • Do an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity once a year and, if changes are detected in the pancreas, prepare steam, low-fat food, be observed by a gastroenterologist
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