Dislocation is a damage to the joint when the articular surfaces of the bones are displaced relative to each other, while there is a violation of their correct contact (congruence) and stretching or rupture of the joint capsule.
More often dislocation develops with unnatural or excessive mechanical impact on the joint: in case of a fall, a sharp awkward movement, and so on. Traumatic dislocations are often accompanied by a fracture of the articular surfaces or other parts of the bones that form the joint. In these cases, they speak of fracture-dislocation.
If a dislocation develops in a painfully altered joint (with arthritis, arthrosis, etc.), they talk about pathological dislocation. In this case, a very small effort is enough for the bones to move in the joint. Allocate also habitual dislocation. This pathology develops as a result of frequent joint injuries, belated or incorrect reduction of a previously occurring dislocation. With a habitual dislocation, the articular capsule loses its mechanical properties, and the articular surfaces of the bones easily change their position relative to each other, even with a normal, physiological load on the joint.
There is also congenital dislocation (most often the hip joint). This situation occurs at the birth of a child with underdeveloped articular surfaces. Timely diagnosis and treatment lead to the formation of normal joints and prevent limitation in movement and performance.
Dislocation is accompanied by severe pain, impaired movement in the joint, external deformity of the joint contour, and often shortening of the limb compared to the healthy one.
With the development of dislocation, swelling of the joint quickly increases: the skin above it swells, sometimes turns red, in case of rupture of blood vessels, a hematoma appears – an accumulation of blood under the skin.
Sometimes it is very difficult to distinguish a dislocation from a fracture. Therefore, if a dislocation is suspected, it is necessary to seek medical help as soon as possible and conduct an x-ray diagnosis. .The sooner the dislocation is reduced, the shorter the rehabilitation period after the injury, and the lower the likelihood of complications and re-dislocations.
Read more: First Aid for Dislocation
Treatment of dislocations
Never try to correct a dislocation yourself: this can lead to severe injuries and pain shock to the victim.
The main help is to call an ambulance as soon as possible or deliver the victim to a medical center.
First aid for a dislocation is to anesthetize and immobilize the joint. A person needs to be reassured, give him an anesthetic tablet (“Analgin”, “Ketorol” or any other analgesic), if possible, you can use injectable forms of analgesic drugs: their action comes faster. Intramuscularly enter the contents of the ampoule solutions “Diclofenac” (Voltaren), “Ketorolac” (Ketorol), “Analgin” and others.
It is desirable to apply cold to the area of the affected joint: a pack of ice or snow, a wet cold cloth in several additions, and so on. Cold reduces swelling, has some analgesic effect, and reduces subcutaneous bleeding.
If you have to transport the patient on your own, it is necessary to immobilize the affected limb. To do this, with the help of improvised means immobilize the dislocated part of the body. A tire (a piece of thick cardboard, a board, a ski, a stick) is bandaged to the limb in such a way as to immobilize the joints closest to the injured. If the leg is injured, the person is transported in the back seat of the car, putting the leg along the seat. In case of damage to the hip joint – in the prone position.
Dislocations are reduced under anesthesia, after relaxation of the muscles of the limb. Depending on the damage to the joint and the corresponding bones, after reduction, an immobilization bandage is applied for a period of a week or more. Then a course of physical therapy is prescribed.