Down with avitaminosis! The main rules of nutrition in the spring

Health Tips

The sun is in the sky, the snow has almost completely melted, the drops ring merrily, the warm wind gently fluffs the hair … But for our body, spring is not only joy, but also a period of exhaustion and lack of vitamins. Avitaminosis is not a disease that should be forgotten – it certainly needs treatment. “Women’s passions” consulted a general practitioner how to deal with this disease.

In winter, of course, we buy and eat vegetables and fruits, but, as a rule, before they reach our table, they are transported for a long time, stored, processed with special means for longer storage, during which most of their useful properties are lost along with vitamins and micronutrients.

Eating canned, refined and processed foods also adversely affect its beneficial properties. Which of us is unfamiliar with brittle nails, split ends, dull and falling hair, flaky dry skin? This – the first signs of beriberi.

In more severe cases, a lack of vitamins and microelements can lead to such unpleasant consequences as arrhythmia, convulsions, exacerbation of chronic diseases.

For children, a lack of vitamin D, which is produced in our body under the influence of sunlight, which is so rare in the autumn-winter period, can lead to ricketswhich threatens the deformation of the bones of the skeleton.

So, let’s try to figure out how a lack of certain vitamins and minerals in the body can manifest itself and with what products they can be replenished.

Vitamin A deficiency

  • hemeralopia (night or “chicken” blindness)
  • xerophthalmia (dryness of the conjunctiva)

  • keratomalacia (corneal ulceration), hyperkeratosis (dryness, peeling and pallor of the skin, keratinization of hair follicles; atrophy of sweat and sebaceous glands)

  • pustular skin diseases, infectious lesions of the respiratory system, urination, digestive tract

  • general malaise

  • weakness; in children – growth and developmental delay, neurological disorders

Vitamin A is found in butter, egg yolk, liver (especially fish and marine animals), carrots.

Provitamin A (carotene) – this is the substance from which the human body synthesizes vitamin A. It is found in carrots, sweet peppers, sea buckthorn, wild rose, green onions, parsley, sorrel.

Vitamin B deficiency

  • Irritability or lethargy
  • insomnia

  • polyneuritis of the upper and lower extremities

  • paresthesia (impaired skin sensitivity)

  • dyspeptic disorders

  • loss of appetite, anorexia

  • stomatitis, glossitis (tongue bright red, dry)

  • dermatitis of the face, scalp, neck, dry itchy dermatitis on the hands

  • hypochromic anemia

  • weight loss

  • weakness

  • headache

  • blurred vision

  • burning sensation of the skin

  • pain in the eyes, the appearance of conjunctivitis

  • shortness of breath and palpitations on exertion

It is found in many products of plant and animal origin, the maximum content is noted in yeast, milk, cheese, cottage cheese, germinated cereal grains, whole grains, wholemeal bread, legumes, kidney, liver, beef and egg yolk.

The vitamin is especially actively consumed in the treatment of antibiotics and anti-tuberculosis drugs.

Vitamin C deficiency

  • general weakness
  • increased capillary fragility with the formation of bruises, bleeding from the gums, hemorrhagic effusions in the joints and pleura

  • dystrophic changes in the mucous membranes

  • decreased vision

It is found in grapefruits, lemons, rose hips, many berries and fruits, cabbage (including pickled) – but only if these products not subjected to heat treatment.

Vitamin D deficiency

  • in children – rickets
  • unmotivated weakness

  • fatigue

  • demineralization of teeth with rapid progression

  • osteoporosis

  • bone pain, muscle pain

  • paresthesia (impaired skin sensitivity)

  • increased risk of diabetes, hypertension and cancer

As mentioned above, vitamin D is mostly produced under the influence of sunlight. But still init is also found in small amounts in foods – butter, milk, egg yolk, cod liver and adipose tissue and some other fish and marine animals.

How to take vitamins correctly?

Vitamin E deficiency

  • infertility
  • fatty liver (fatty liver)

Vitamin E is contained in germinated grains of cereals, green parts of vegetables and a number of wild plants, sunflower oil.

Normal levels are essential for absorption. zinc (found in eggplant, cucumber, tomato, offal, oysters, mushrooms, and pumpkin) and Selene (contain it coconut, lard, garlic, sea fish, porcini mushrooms, eggs, sunflower seeds, lentils, wholemeal bread, offal). But sweet and starchy foods interfere with its absorption in the body.

Lack of vitamin PP (nicotinic acid) – pellagra

  • loss of appetite
  • dryness and burning in the mouth

  • vomit

  • diarrhea alternating with constipation

  • general progressive weakness

  • tongue bright red, edematous with painful ulceration, later varnish

  • Achilles occurs (absence of hydrochloric acid in the stomach)

  • general irritability

  • in severe cases, convulsions, ataxia occur, sometimes dementia develops

  • erythema (reddening of the skin), accompanied by skin itching, hyperpigmentation (mainly on open areas of the body and extremities), skin peeling

  • hypoproteinemia (low protein in the blood)

Prevention for the elderly should be carried out not only by diet, but also by taking prophylactic courses of tablets or injections under the supervision of the attending physician.

Contains nicotinic acid in brewer’s and baker’s yeast and dried porcini mushrooms, as well as in wholemeal bread, cereals, liver, heart, kidneys, meat, legumes, fish.

Vitamin K deficiency

bleeding

poor wound healing

It is extremely rare – most often in people with problems in the production and release of bile. Vitamin K is rich in white and cauliflower, tomatoes, pumpkin, pork liver. Quite a lot of it in carrots, beets, potatoes, legumes, wheat and oats.

How to deal with avitaminosis?

The prevention of vitamin deficiency is the intake of vitamin complexes. Separately, I would like to note that vitamins should be taken at least three times a day – they are not stored “in reserve” (except for vitamins A, D, E, K), and from the morning portion of vitamin preparations the body will take only the dose that is needed at a given time – all excess will be excreted in the urine, and the need for vitamins will occur during the day and evening.

Do not take chemical vitamins uncontrollably: too much vitamin is just as bad as too little. For example: an excess of vitamin D leads to leaching of calcium from the bones, vitamin E negatively affects the liver, an excess of vitamin A leads to poisoning, vitamin C irritates the stomach and can lead to ulcers if taken for a long time.

But vitamins in capsules, tablets or potions are chemical preparations, so they are absorbed in our body much more slowly and worse than “live” ones. vitaminscontained in fresh vegetables and fruits.

What foods are the most useful in spring?

This germinated cereal grains, vegetables and fruits without heat treatment, fish liver. A lot of vitamins and trace elements are found in dandelions, nettles, cucumber leaves, burdock – they can not only be used as food in the summer, but also salted or dried to harvest natural vitamins for the winter.

During heat treatment, only vitamins A, D and E are preserved in food – all the rest are destroyed. An exception – raspberries: its useful properties are preserved during heat treatment, and there are a lot of them.

I would like to specially note vitaminswhich are shown to people who are overweight: vitamins of groups B, PP and C accelerate metabolism and contribute to weight loss.

I would like to wish all readers a bright spring. Always remember: our health is 70% dependent on nutrition and lifestyle!

Alla GRIGORYEVA,
general practitioner

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