For a city dweller, symptoms such as chronic fatigue, an exhausted look and increased irritability have long been considered the norm. Dry sensitive skin, brittle hair, exfoliating nails – we see the causes of all these troubles in poor ecology and endless stress. And, of course, there is some truth in this.
But to a very large extent, how we look and how we feel depends on ourselves and how much we take care of our bodies. complete sleep, proper nutrition, moderate exercise and mental balance – these are the four things on which the physical health of a person is based.
It is worth removing at least one element, and the consequences will not be long in coming.
In this case, our nutrition plays the most important role, literally everything depends on it: our appearance, our well-being and even our mood! To feel healthy, vigorous and full of energy, you need not only calories, but also vitamins and minerals.
You will be surprised, but sometimes a single vitamin can completely change a person, no matter how strange it may sound. For example, a severe deficiency of B vitamins can make a person irritable and hysterical, or even drive into depression.
In this case, after a course of vitamins, these “character traits” (which in this case are just symptoms) usually begin to pass by themselves, even if the external circumstances that the person explained his behavior have not changed.
Goodshapetips has put together their mini vitamin guide for dummies to help you figure out which vitamins and minerals you’re missing and choose your vitamins.
When are vitamins and minerals needed?
If your diet is well balanced, then you should not be deficient in vitamins. But this is theoretical. In practice, the need for vitamins and minerals varies from person to person and depends not only on diet, but also on lifestyle, health status, age, etc. As a rule, the need for additional intake of vitamins arises in the following cases:
- you are pregnant or breastfeeding (in this case, you should consult your doctor about which vitamins you should take);
Are you a vegetarian or vegan?
you have been sitting on a strict diet;
you have just had a cold or an infectious disease;
Do you regularly experience stress?
you are forced work to the limit their mental or physical abilities;
you lead a bohemian lifestyle (drink a lot, smoke and stay awake at night).
Also, the need for vitamins usually increases in the winter-spring period, when there are few fresh vegetables and fruits.
The state of partial vitamin deficiency is called hypovitaminosis, and it is this that occurs most often. The extreme degree of vitamin deficiency is already beriberi, but in order to reach such a state, you need to try very hard. For example, to get scurvy, you need to go without foods containing vitamin C for at least 4 weeks.
There is also a state opposite to hypovitaminosis – hypervitaminosis, but it occurs much less frequently and usually occurs due to excessive intake of vitamins, so it is better not to abuse it.
Vitamins are fat-soluble (A, D, E, F, K) and water-soluble (C, B and others).
Excess water-soluble vitamins are excreted from the body with urine, so their overdose is not so terrible (but it is better not to abuse it), and fat-soluble vitamins accumulate and can cause hypervitaminosis. Hypovitaminosis is most often caused by a lack of water-soluble vitamins.
Both hypovitaminosis and hypervitaminosis can manifest themselves in very different ways, and each vitamin has its own symptoms.
How do you know if supplemental vitamins are right for you? See if you belong to one of the above groups. If so, then most likely you need vitamins.
1. Analyze your diet.
To do this, try to write down everything you eat for a week, and in what quantities, and at the end, calculate whether you get enough vitamins from food (to calculate, use the vitamin content tables in foods – they can be easily found on the Internet).
2. Focus on how you feel.
Lethargy, constant drowsiness, difficulty concentrating, skin problems bad mood for a long period, frequent colds, muscle weakness – if there are no other objective reasons, then all this can be signs of hypovitaminosis.
If you have serious health problems, then you should not play Dr. House and self-medicate – better go to the doctor.
We select vitamins
So, you have decided that you are lacking in vitamins, but you cannot determine which ones. As already mentioned, each hypovitaminosis has its own manifestations. If possible, of course, it is advisable to consult a doctor and take tests that will show what exactly you are missing.
We will not go into the wilds and consider symptoms such as “violation of glutamine metabolism” and “corneal vascularization”, but we will take only those that you can observe in yourself (but in this case it is still advisable to check your guess with a doctor).
Outwardly, a lack of vitamins and minerals can manifest itself in a haggard, tired look, skin and hair problems:
one. Dry, irritated, flaky skin – A, C, E, vitamin B complex, I.
2. Dry and brittle hair – A, B7, Ca (calcium), D (for calcium absorption).
3. Hair loss – B2, B3, B6, B9, B12, A, E, D, C, Zn (zinc).
4. Problematic skin – A, E, vitamin B complex, Zn, Mg (magnesium).
5. Brittle, exfoliating nails – A, E, B5, Ca (+ D)
6. Dental problems (enamel destruction, caries) – Ca, D3, C.
7. Dandruff – B6, B12, F, Se (selenium).
The deficiency of vitamins also affects the state of health very noticeably. For example, the following conditions may be associated with a lack of vitamins:
one. Frequent colds – A, C, K.
2.Weakness, fatigue – B1, B2, B5, B6, B7, B12, C, D3, E, I (iodine), Zn.
3. Memory impairment – B1, B4, B5, B6, C, F (Omega-3 and Omega-6), I, Zn.
4. Frequent headaches – B1, B12, C, D3, Mg, I.
5. Trouble concentrating – B6, C, F, I.
6. Depression, depressed mood – B6, B7, B12, C, F, I, Zn.
7. Increased irritability – B5, B6, B12, E, F, I, Zn.
Rules for taking vitamins
If you find yourself lacking one or more vitamins, do not rush to the pharmacy for popular vitamin complexes. The selection of the dosage and the correct combination of vitamins is also a whole science.
Unfortunately, many of the ready-made vitamin complexes contain vitamins and minerals that interfere with the absorption of each other: for example, calcium and zinc. Remember a simple rule: the more vitamins in one tablet, the less useful it is.
If you choose a vitamin complex, then make sure that the components in its composition at least do not interfere with each other, but rather contribute to the assimilation of each other. For example, the following combinations can be called ideal in terms of compatibility of components: A + E + C, as well as Ca + Mg + D3.
Also note that your individual daily dose may differ from the standard – it depends on lifestyle, working conditions and other factors. Below is a list of the most important vitamins and minerals that are most often found to be deficient in metropolitan areas.
You can print it out and already in the pharmacy with knowledge of the matter choose for yourself the best set of vitamins in accordance with your needs.
A (retinol), G (fat soluble)
Daily rate: – 900 mcg, maximum – 3000 mcg.
Sources: fish oil, liver, wild garlic, viburnum
The need increases with intense physical and mental stress, pregnancy, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, infections, constant work at the computer
Peculiarities: it is desirable to use simultaneously with E, C and zinc
B1 (thiamine), B (water soluble)
Daily rate: 1.4-2.4 mg
Sources: pine nuts, peas, soybeans, oatmeal
The need increases with intense physical activity, stress, pregnancy, infectious diseases, cold climates, excessive consumption of tea, coffee or alcohol
Peculiarities: it is desirable to use separately from B12 and B6: B12 can increase the allergic reaction to B1, and B6 interferes with the transition of B1 to the active form
B2 (riboflavin), B
Daily rate: 1.5-2.5 mg
Sources: pine nuts, liver, eggs, almonds
The need increases with intense physical activity, stress, pregnancy.
Peculiarities: preferably consumed with meals
B3 (niacin), B
Daily rate: 15-20 mg
Sources: champignons, beans, peas, liver
The need increases with extreme weather conditions (hot or cold), intense physical activity, pregnancy, vegetarian/vegan diet
B6 (pyridoxine), B
Daily rate: 1.5-2 mg
Sources: pine nuts, beans, liver, pomegranate, sweet pepper
The need increases with intense physical activity, pregnancy, stress
Peculiarities: Mg is needed for absorption, it is advisable to use it separately from B1
B12 (cyanocobalamin), B
Daily rate: 2-3 mcg
Sources: liver, kidneys, meat, fish, milk, eggs
The need increases with intense physical activity, pregnancy
Peculiarities: a vegan diet requires taking vitamins or foods fortified with B12. It is highly desirable to use separately from B1, C, Fe (iron) and Cu (copper), as they turn B12 into an inactive form
C (ascorbic acid), B
Daily rate: 70-100 mg (for an absolutely healthy person), maximum – 2000 mg
Sources: wild rose, bell pepper, kiwi, wild garlic, citrus
The need increases with intense physical activity, stress, colds and infectious diseases, pregnancy, adverse environmental conditions, harsh climate, smoking, taking birth control pills
Peculiarities: be sure to use with food, preferably taken simultaneously with A, E and Fe. For a resident of the metropolis, the optimal dose is 500 mg
D3 (cholecalciferol), F
Daily rate: 10 mcg
Sources: D3 is produced in the body when exposed to ultraviolet rays (15 minutes a day on the street is enough), D3 is also found in the liver, fish, butter and eggs
The need increases with pregnancy, old age (over 60), menopause, reclusive lifestyle (rare exposure to the sun).
Peculiarities: must be used together with Ca, preferably together with A and Mg.
E (tocopherol), F
Daily rate: 8-10 IU
Sources: olive oil, salmon, almonds, cashews, milk, eggs
The need increases with intense physical activity, stress, adverse environmental conditions, menopause
Peculiarities: preferably used simultaneously with A, C, Zn and Se (selenium)
Rules for taking minerals
Daily rate: 10-18 mg
Sources: liver, pistachios, eggs
The need increases with pregnancy, menses, heavy bleeding
Peculiarities: it is desirable to take separately from Ca and Zn, but simultaneously with A and C
Daily rate: 150 mcg
Sources: squid, shrimp, cod, seaweed
The need increases with pregnancy, intense physical and mental stress.
Peculiarities: in no case should it be consumed in its pure form, in large quantities iodine is toxic and an overdose can be fatal.
Daily rate: 800-1000 mg
Sources: dairy products, almonds, pistachios, peas
The need increases with intense physical activity, pregnancy, in childhood and adolescence, with excessive consumption of tea, coffee and alcohol.
Peculiarities: absorption requires D3 and Mg, taken separately from Zn.
Daily dose: 300 mg
Sources: sesame, cashew, pine nuts, almonds
The need increases with regular use of alcohol, stress, intense physical and mental stress, pregnancy.
Peculiarities: it is desirable to use together with B6 and Ca, separately from P (phosphorus) and Na (sodium).
Daily dose: 10-15 mg
Sources: oysters, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, liver, beans, peas
The need increases with intense physical activity
Peculiarities: it is desirable to take separately from Fe and Ca
Depression: illness or bad mood?
Cleansing the body: effective detox programs
Smoking: minimizing health risks
When the neck hurts: causes and consequences
Mastopathy: when it’s time to go to the doctor
How to strengthen immunity?