Currently, about 250 million people in the world suffer from diabetes. And these are only those who know about their illness. Why is “sugar jumping”, what is its normal level in the blood, what to do if the doctor found you have diabetes?
What is diabetes
Diabetes occurs in chronic insulin deficiency. This is a hormone that is produced in the pancreas and is involved in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism in the body, and also reduces the concentration of glucose in the blood. As a result of insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, develops.
Normal is the content of glucose in the blood serum from 3 to 5 mmol / l. Severe hyperglycemia occurs at 11 mmol / l, diabetic coma – at rates of about 30 mmol / l, and if nothing is done during the day, then the patient runs the risk of falling into a real coma. Diabetes is sometimes called the “silent killer” because a person can live without being aware that the disease is eating away at him inside. The danger is that late complications develop over several years, constantly worsening the life of the patient. And for 10-15 years of the course of the disease, even with proper treatment, the walls of blood vessels narrow, chronic renal failure develops, and diseases of the nervous system occur.
How to identify diabetes
The symptoms of this disease are not always obvious, so it is often possible to diagnose it already in the later stages. And all because a person does not suspect that he has diabetes and does not go to the doctor. What should be of concern? The first and most obvious indicator of a rise in blood sugar is intense thirst. At the same time, he especially draws on sweet drinks, sodas and lemonades. The next signal is a constant feeling of hunger. The diet has not changed or you began to eat more, and the weight, paradoxically, begins to decline rapidly. At night, there may be cramps in the calf muscles and torment skin itching. Vision problems begin, light scratches do not heal for a long time. During the day, you feel weak and quickly get tired, although you are not unloading wagons, but sitting all day in front of a computer. Another symptom is a lack of sexual desire. Genetic predisposition plays a significant role in the development of the disease. If one of your relatives (parents, grandmother, grandfather, uncle, aunt) suffers from diabetes, run to donate blood for sugar!
Causes of Diabetes
Diabetes mellitus is of two types: the first and second. The first type is more severe, with an absolute deficiency of insulin, patients need daily injections of this hormone to reduce the amount of sugar after eating. Type 2 diabetes is non-insulin-dependent, with it there is cell immunity to this hormone. There are several reasons for this disease. The most common in the first type is an autoimmune process in the body, in which antibodies are produced against the cells of the pancreas, which is responsible for the production of insulin. Most often this is due to genetics. Children of diabetic parents need to have their health checked regularly. If both parents are sick, then the risk of developing diabetes in a child reaches 60%.
With age, the risk of developing type 1 diabetes decreases, and adolescents most often suffer from it. And the trigger for the disease is stress, for example, during exams. At the same time, the body’s need for glucose against the background of increased mental stress is growing. Schoolchildren and students eat irregularly, they choose food of little use, like chocolate bars and cola. That’s why it’s so important to watch what your child eats and keep him from overworking.
The main cause of type 2 diabetes is being overweight or obese. It occurs in overweight middle-aged people. Adipose tissue receptors have low sensitivity to insulin, so if there is a lot of it in the body, then the amount of glucose in the blood exceeds the norm.
Bread units and how to count them
Patients with diabetes should constantly monitor the intake of carbohydrates. Therefore, for their convenience, a special counting measure called a bread unit was developed: a piece of black bread weighing about 25 g was taken as a standard, it contains about 10 g of carbohydrates. This amount increases the level of glucose in the blood by about 2.5 mmol / l, and it takes about 1.5 units of insulin to neutralize it. There are special tables in which all products are translated into bread units, they help patients to eat properly. For an adult, about 20 bread units per day are considered the norm, and it is not recommended to take more than six at a time.
What is a glucometer and how to use it
Diabetics should measure sugar 4-7 times a day: in the morning on an empty stomach and before each meal. This is done using a device called a glucometer. Without his help, it is impossible to determine the level of glucose in the blood. Even if the sugar has risen twice as high as normal, you can not feel unwell. By the way, doctors recommend regularly measuring the level of glucose in the blood and healthy people – precisely in order not to miss the onset of the disease and not lead to complications. The needle with which the finger is pierced is very thin, so the procedure is almost painless. First, a special disposable test strip is inserted into the glucometer, then a finger is pierced and a drop of blood is squeezed onto the strip. The result will appear on the meter screen. Remember that doctors recommend keeping a schedule of your indicators, which can then be discussed at the appointment.