Complications from the respiratory system
We list what pathologies are observed in patients who have undergone COVID-19. The most common respiratory complications include:
chronic cough with the development of persistent transient airway hyperreactivity;
post-inflammatory pulmonary fibrosis; the formation of bronchiectasis; pleural effusions and adhesive processes in the pleural cavities;
pathology of the vessels of the pulmonary circulation.
Patients who have had coronavirus often complain of shortness of breath, persistent, exhausting cough. The reason for this is a violation of the receptor apparatus of the bronchi, changes in the respiratory epithelium. In some cases, post-inflammatory pulmonary fibrosis develops. The severity of chronic fibrotic changes in the lungs largely depends on the timeliness of the start of therapy, the characteristics of the body’s immune response, gender, age, and comorbidities. Therefore, the main task in the treatment of the disease is to prevent such complications.
The heart and blood vessels are in the area of special attention
The virus primarily damages the endothelium, the membrane that lines the inner surface of blood vessels, causing endothelial dysfunction. Metabolic disorders in the myocardium, in particular, oxygen supply to cardiomyocytes, leads to the development of dysmetabolic cardiomyopathy.
With coronavirus infection, complications such as rhythm and conduction disturbances, myocarditis are common. Violated blood viscosity, which can increase the risk of thrombosis, lead to heart attacks and strokes.
It is already known today that coronavirus is characterized by multisystem inflammatory reactions: a number of vital body systems are under attack: not only the lungs, but also the cardiovascular system, liver, kidneys, central nervous system, endocrine system. Therefore, it is no coincidence that people suffering from a number of chronic diseases, such as arterial hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes, have an increased risk of developing complications after the disease.
Due to damage to the vessels, a frequent complication may be a deterioration in vision by several units. Therefore, it is important to prescribe appropriate therapy in time – the sooner the better. To understand the cause of vision loss and to identify possible microthrombi, the doctor prescribes a tomography of the fundus.
To protect your eyes, it is recommended to eat right, be outdoors more often and follow safety measures – wear not only masks and gloves, but also special goggles, and do not touch your eyes with dirty hands. If you complain of decreased vision, the appearance of spots before the eyes, distortion of lines, narrowing of the visual fields, you should immediately consult a doctor!
Among those who have recovered from coronavirus, complaints of weakness and pain in the muscles, chronic fatigue are among the most frequent. Moreover, the decline in strength can be so strong that it is difficult for a person not only to leave the house, it is even difficult to raise a hand. Postviral asthenia is the effect of a virus on the central nervous system. There is a very rapid depletion of the nervous system, weakness appears. And even if a person was in good physical shape before the illness, after COVID, with seemingly familiar loads, muscle pains appear.
Important: for those involved in sports, a sharp increase in stress during recovery from an illness is a serious mistake, as it can lead to a severe post-COVID state and even re-infection.
Mental disorders, depression
A group of American scientists, having studied the medical records of 62,000 patients who recovered from COVID-19, found a strong link between coronavirus infection and the development of mental illness. As they found, one in five patients with coronavirus three months after the onset of the disease, there was also a mental disorder, for example, an anxiety disorder or depression. There were also cases of dementia.
After suffering a coronavirus, this unpleasant phenomenon is so strong that the curls, it is worth running through the hair, remain right in the hands. Thus, up to 40% of the hair can fall out. Often for patients, especially women, this is accompanied by psychological problems.
The olfactory system is a complex, well-coordinated system of receptor cells of the nasal mucosa, conductive nerve fibers and the olfactory center of the brain. In the event of a malfunction of any link, the process of odor perception is disrupted. As a rule, the smell impairment in COVID occurs on days 4-7 of illness, and in most patients the sense of smell is restored within 14 days. However, there is evidence of a longer course of olfactory disorders.
According to research, full recovery from coronavirus anosmia takes from 3 days to 3 months.
In patients who have undergone COVID, symptoms are most often observed in the form of an increase in the number of enteritis, lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea after each meal, not associated with a violation of the diet. As a result, the patient loses weight, important trace elements, and nutrients. His quality of life is seriously deteriorating.
Sometimes pseudoneuronous colitis is even detected, when, with reduced immunity, pathogenic microflora begins to multiply, which must be treated. Experts believe that the reason for this is not only a coronavirus infection, but also massive treatment with antiviral drugs.
Coronavirus directly infects kidney cells, which in turn have ACE2 receptors that allow infection cells to attach and damage these tissues. The kidneys are damaged due to the lack of oxygen in the blood caused by the virus attacking the lungs. In addition, the immune system, “recognizing” the virus in kidney cells, will seek to destroy them, damaging the cellular tissue of the kidneys. And blood clots that form in inflamed vessels further worsen or completely block the work of the organ.
The virus is insidious in that it seeks to hit the “target” organs. If the patient has weak kidneys – he hits the kidneys, if the vessels are weak – strokes begin, if there were diseases of the organs of vision, then as a result the infection will result in an eye pathology.
How to help the body
In this situation, it is important that patients understand that the disease does not end after receiving a negative test for coronavirus. To eliminate the negative consequences of COVID-19, it is necessary that the patient is not left without professional medical support after being discharged from the hospital.
The best help to the body during this difficult period is to maintain the immune system in good condition. Here the rules are simple: walks in the fresh air, good sleep, a gradual increase in physical activity, breathing exercises, as this is important not only for maintaining the lungs, but also for saturating the brain with oxygen. There is no need to rush things and try to return to your usual activity as quickly as possible, since the body is weakened. Give him a chance to recover.
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