Healthy Eating: Simple Truths

Health Tips

Advertising imposes certain stereotypes on us: pasta and potatoes are evil, oil is poison, fruits and vegetables are synthetics. But something cleaned and fat-free, odorless and tastes like paper – that’s what you need! Is it really? Goodshapetips asked this question to a doctor who told in detail what is proper nutrition.

In pursuit of beauty, we often forget that we do not eat breakfast, lunch and dinner in order to gain extra pounds or eatstress.We eat in order to live.

Unreasonably limiting ourselves in food, we get the opposite result: the stomach begins to ask for more, the wolf wakes up appetite, and I want just “forbidden”. And it’s not a matter of weak willpower, but that the body requires exactly those foods in which it is deficient. In physiology, this is called selective appetite.

Keeping the stomach on a starvation diet, we deplete our health. Problems with the gastrointestinal tract are not long in coming, and along with the extra pounds, the beauty of the skin and shine disappear. hair, energy and good mood.

In order to benefit from food, you need to know the rules of a balanced diet.

Eat by the hour!

As American journalist Michael Pollan writes in his books: “Don’t eat what your grandmother wouldn’t want to eat.”

Vedic Rules healthy eating or the advice of Chinese monks has nothing to do with the way of life and nutrition of a Russian person. “What is good for a Russian is death for a German!” And vice versa.

That’s why all our attempts to diversify the spring diet with foreign cuisine have a negative impact on health. Stomach a Russian person, accustomed to borscht, is not able to digest and assimilate fatty Kazakh shurpa with high quality.

Can you imagine what happens to the intestinal microflora, which, day after day, patiently waits for the usual sausage or cutlet, but receives sushi and rolls?

The main rule of the concept of a balanced diet: eat only what your stomach can absorb. After all, the enzyme systems of the body are completely dependent on the food that we are used to receiving from generation to generation.

Healthy eating rules

It is known that everything in the body is subject to biorhythms, including the work of the digestive system. Even a newborn baby, who is on the free breastfeeding, over time, begins to demand food by the hour. Good for him: eat – yes sleep!

We are also influenced by the hectic rhythm of everyday life: today I overslept breakfast, tomorrow I missed lunch because of a blockage at work, but on Friday evening you can “break away in full” and eat well.

Untimely and uneven intake of food is one of the main reasons gastritis, peptic ulcer, biliary dyskinesia, intestines and a whole list of diagnoses from the gastroenterologist’s reference book.

For a healthy person, it is optimal to eat 3-4 times a day, and at the same time. Getting used to such a regime is sometimes difficult.

After a few days, your body will get used to a healthy discipline and start working on a new schedule.

Create a rainbow on your plate!

In order for food to be beneficial, and not harmful, it must be chewed properly. After all, digestion in humans begins in the oral cavity.

During chewing, food acquires the required temperature, texture, is crushed and soaked with saliva. The antiseptic substances contained in saliva partially disinfect food, and enzymes begin the digestion of carbohydrates.

In addition, a number of biologically active substances are quickly absorbed in the oral cavity. No wonder some medicines we take under the tongue – to speed up the effect.

After processing, a food bolus begins to form in the mouth, which physiologists endow with a number of physicochemical properties. Without proper processing in the mouth, food is poorly digested, moves slowly along gastrointestinal tract, It has an irritating and even toxic effect on the digestive system.

During chewing, blood supply and nutrition of the teeth improves, saliva creates the right environment for enamel mineralization, and destroys “carious monsters”. This is the basis of the action of chewing gums, which “protect against caries.”

Try not to be distracted at the table, do not read, do not watch TV. All this not only disrupts digestion, but also prevents you from feeling full: during a conversation, a person eats twice as much as necessary.

You have to get up from the table a little hungry. After all appetite comes with eating, and the feeling of satiety is always annoyingly late. Only when nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract begin to saturate the blood do we realize that we have eaten enough.

About drinking regimen

Some nutritionists It is advised to eat “colored” food: the more flowers on the plate, the higher the nutritional value of your menu.

It is important to diet was varied, balanced in content of proteins, fats and carbohydrates, contained the required amount of vitamins and minerals.

For an adult healthy person, there are no restrictions on the choice of food. The main thing is to observe moderation in the amount of food and listen to your own body.

The digestion process consumes a lot of energy. Proteins are the most difficult to digest, 20-30% of their energy value goes to their processing. Fats and carbohydrates are much “lighter” – less than 5-7% of their value is spent on their own assimilation. The fastest way to leave the stomach is carbohydrates, then proteins, and lastly fats.

This fact should be taken into account when planning the menu. Food rich in fat and protein is more useful to eat in the morning – for breakfast and lunch. For dinner, you should leave foods that are easier to assimilate, since the stomach must rest at night. This is how the diet is traditionally calculated in preschool institutions: fish and cottage cheese for breakfast, and vegetables and liquid foods for dinner. porridge.

Fried, salted, pickled, smoked dishes, spices, foods containing a large amount of essential oils (radish, garlic, onion, radish, etc.) irritate the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, stimulate increased secretion of digestive juice, bile enzymes , increase the load on the organs of the gastrointestinal tract.

Therefore, you should not eat them more than once a day, and if there are any problems with digestion, it is better to give them up for a while.

The whole truth about squirrels

The drinking regimen is of great importance for proper digestion. A person should drink at least a liter of liquid per day. In hot weather and during physical exertion, the amount of fluid should be increased.

You can drink water before meals, and after, and during. It all depends on the characteristics of your body, food preferences. With low acidity of the gastric juice, you are unlikely to want to drink water during or before meals. Moreover, people with low acidity usually eat even liquid dishes (soups, borscht) “through I don’t want to”.

On the contrary, with a high production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, people drink water during meals or before meals, diluting the gastric juice.

The main thing is to listen to yourself and not drink water by force. Excess fluid in the body complicates the work of the heart and kidneys. And the older we get, the stronger this influence.

Can fats be eliminated?

The daily menu should include proteins of both animal and vegetable origin. Restrictions on protein foods are extremely harmful to health.

When ingested, proteins break down into their constituent units – amino acids, which are absorbed and used to synthesize their own protein molecules.

Eight (and for children – ten) amino acids are essential, they cannot be synthesized in the human body. Their source is food. With a long-term shortage of these amino acids, protein starvation.

With an excess of amino acids, severe health disorders are also possible. If the balance of amino acids supplied with food is disturbed, toxic damage to the body can develop. Therefore, ideally, protein foods should be close in amino acid composition to the composition of proteins in the human body.

Thinking through the menu, you need to consider that not all proteins are digested equally well.

Proteins of fish and dairy products are digested better than others, meat is in second place, and only in third are proteins of bread, cereals and vegetables.

What carbohydrates do you prefer?

Products containing fat must be present on our plates. Fats are not only a source of calories and energy for normal activity during the day.

Fats and fat-like substances are part of every cell of our body, a huge number of biologically active substances, hormones (including sex hormones), etc. With fats we get vitamins and their “precursors”: animal fats contain vitamin A, and vegetable fats contain vitamin E.

Ideally, we should daily use both animal fats and vegetable fats, and in a ratio of 2: 1. The average fat intake should be about 1-1.5 g per 1 kg of body weight per day.

Of particular importance are essential fatty acids: linoleic, as well as alpha-linolenic and arachidonic. The source of these acids are mainly vegetable oils.

It is estimated that to fully meet our needs for polyunsaturated (essential) acids, you need to eat 20-25 g of vegetable oil per day, that is, about 1 tbsp. spoons.

The big disadvantage of all fats is that during storage and cooking, their composition changes greatly: many useful components are destroyed with the formation of toxic, carcinogenic substances.

For example, vegetable oil cannot be stored in the light in a transparent container, although this is often how it is sold in stores. Frying in oil is also harmful, especially vegetable oil.

The main source of carbohydrates for us is starch – we eat much more of it than glucose, fructose and sucrose combined.

Contrary to popular belief, most starch is found in flour (54-68%), cereals (60-70%) and pasta (60-70%). The starch content in potatoes is only 18%.

Simple carbohydrates are most quickly digested: glucose, fructose, galactose. A constant excess of these “fast” sugars in food can, over time, provoke the development diabetes mellitus.

The most harmless in this regard is fructose, it is absorbed without the participation of insulin. The highest percentage of fructose is found in black currants, apples and pears. Honey contains significant amounts of both fructose and glucose.

Of great importance for the normal functioning of the intestines and metabolism is the amount of indigestible carbohydrates in food – ballast substances. Most of them are found in rye flour, and only then in fruits and vegetables. Therefore, black bread should not be excluded from the diet.

Despite the fact that many diets “sin” by the complete exclusion of carbohydrates, this should never be done. The minimum amount of carbohydrates per day is 50-60 g. If the amount of carbohydrates decreases more strongly, the processes of sugar biosynthesis from fats come into force.

This really leads to a decrease in body weight, however, at the same time, fatty degeneration of the liver develops, incompletely oxidized decay products of fats accumulate, poisoning the body.

It is healthier to cut down on simple carbohydrates, which in large quantities harm the pancreas. Normally, 300-400 g in the daily menu should be complex carbohydrates (starch, glycogen) and only 50-100 g – simple carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, galactose).

Natalia DOLGOPOLOVA,
general practitioner

Photo: shutterstock.com

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