heart attack

Health Tips

A heart attack is the death of an organ tissue as a result of a cessation or a sharp decrease in blood supply.

There is a heart attack of the spleen, brain (stroke), kidney and other organs. Most often, the term is used in the context of “myocardial infarction” – necrosis (death) of the heart muscle.

Myocardial infarction is a form of coronary heart disease.

With coronary heart disease or angina pectoris (angina pectoris), the blood supply to a part of the myocardium – the heart muscle – gradually decreases.

This happens for the following reasons:

  1. Narrowing of the coronary vessels as a result of atherosclerosis. In this case, an atherosclerotic plaque is formed on the inner surface of the vascular wall, which, increasing, narrows the lumen of the vessel, thereby reducing blood supply in the myocardium.
  2. Thrombi can form on the surface of atherosclerotic plaques, narrowing the lumen of the vessel.
  3. Embolism (blockage) of blood vessels by detached blood clots, pieces of atherosclerotic plaque, and so on is possible.

Against the background of emotional stress, increased blood pressure, physical activity, when the load on the heart increases, constricted blood vessels cannot provide adequate blood flow to the heart muscle. As a result, myocardial infarction develops.

Read more: How to recognize a heart attack?

Symptoms of myocardial infarction

More often, myocardial infarction develops in people who experience discomfort in the region of the heart for a long time. However, in some cases, the development of this dangerous condition occurs suddenly, unexpectedly for the patient, without a previous disturbance of well-being. There are also painless forms of myocardial infarction, which are detected randomly during examination or when the general condition worsens.

The classic symptoms of myocardial infarction are:

Intense pain in the left side of the chest, behind the sternum, in the region of the heart. The pain can be given to the left shoulder blade, arm, to the lower jaw. As a rule, taking nitroglycerin, which relieves an attack of heart pain in those suffering from angina, does not bring relief. Pain occurs during physical exertion, stress.

Numbness of the left arm, lower jaw, tingling sensation with needles, heat.

Sharp weakness, shortness of breath, sweating, interruptions in the heart, loss of consciousness is possible.

In addition to typical symptoms, myocardial infarction may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, toothache, etc.

First aid for a patient with myocardial infarction

To seat or lay down a person, to provide an influx of fresh air. Urgently call an ambulance. The highest mortality from myocardial infarction is observed in the first 1.5-2 hours. Therefore, it is important to provide the patient with qualified medical care as soon as possible.

People who suffer from heart disease for a long time usually carry medications that they use for pain: nitroglycerin, nitrosorbitol, nitrospray, nitrocor and other nitrates, validol, valocordin. The patient should be helped to take these medicines, give an aspirin tablet to chew.

Attention! You can not rub the heart area, try to endure the pain, get distracted. It is necessary to provide the patient with complete rest in order to reduce the load on the heart.

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