Hematoma – a limited accumulation of blood in soft tissues resulting from injury to blood vessels.
Hematoma can reach a significant size, occupy a large area, leading to compression of surrounding tissues and organs.
Hematoma can be located under the skin, intramuscularly, under the serous membranes, in the brain and internal organs.
Small hematomas usually do not cause discomfort and resolve without consequences. They are often referred to as bruises. But, in the elderly, in people with a weakened immune system, as well as with a significant injury, hematomas can become infected, suppurate, disrupt the function of internal organs. In addition, superficially located hematomas cause a cosmetic defect.
At the site of impact, a painful swelling first forms, dense to the touch. The skin above it is reddened, becomes hot. After a while, it acquires a purple-cyanotic hue.
After 2-3 days, the hematoma or bruise begins to “bloom”, gradually changing its color to yellowish, and on day 4-5 to greenish. Such a metamorphosis occurs as a result of the breakdown of hemoglobin in the blood that has poured out under the skin. By the color of the hematoma, you can determine the duration of the injury. Depending on the position of the body, the hematoma can “slide” under the influence of gravity within a few days.
In the case of a hematoma of the internal organs, the symptoms of compression and dysfunction of these organs come first. With a brain hematoma, brain symptoms develop: headaches, dizziness, nausea and vomiting that do not bring relief, impaired speech, coordination of movement, thermoregulation, consciousness, etc., depending on the area of the lesion and the extent of the process.
In the first hours after injury it is necessary to apply a pressure bandage to the bruised place and apply cold. For minor bruises, it is enough to hold the bruised area under running cold water for 8-10 minutes. After 1-2 days, heat is recommended on the site of the bruisephysiotherapy to accelerate the resorption of the spilled blood.
Various external agents have a good absorbing effect. Ointments with hirudin, an extract of a medicinal leech (HirudoTonus, Bruise off), are widely used, heparin ointment, Bodyaga ointment and others have an excellent absorbing effect.
In the case of large hematomas, the skin above them is punctured and the liquid part of the blood is removed.
In case of severe pain syndrome, impaired mobility in the limb, signs of general malaise, it is necessary to seek medical help. A rapidly growing hematoma can be a sign of severe trauma: fractures, dislocations, ruptures of large vessels.