How does the thyroid gland affect the health of the female body

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The reproductive system of a woman can be compared to a complex mechanism. It includes various structures: ovaries, adrenal glands, thyroid gland, as well as subcortical centers, hypothalamus and pituitary gland.

Many important processes in the female body depend on the proper functioning of the neuroendocrine system: the onset of menstruation at the age of 12-14, the maturation of follicles, the functioning of the corpus luteum, ovulation and the successful development of pregnancy.

When a pathological process occurs in any of the components of this system, the correct and harmonious functioning of the reproductive function is disrupted. On the outer level, this is usually seen as “breaking the cycle”. In such cases, it is necessary to conduct a thorough examination using instrumental and laboratory diagnostic methods.

Thyroid and menstruation

With changes in the functioning of the thyroid gland, especially in the case of a decrease in its function (hypothyroidism), the menstrual cycle is disturbed. This can manifest itself as irregular periods, or their complete absence. If you do not pay attention to this, the situation will progress, and in the future it can lead to infertility or even miscarriage.

In girls, hypothyroidism can lead to disorders in sexual development, including primary or secondary amenorrhea (the complete absence of menstruation).

Today, such an endocrine pathology as autoimmune thyroiditis is quite common. The body produces antibodies to thyroid cells.

With this disease, the risk of developing severe thyroid disorders is seriously increased. However, if thyroid hormones (TSH and T4) are within the acceptable range in this disease, autoimmune thyroiditis does not require treatment. If the indicators deviate from the normal options (not so important, up or down), then it is necessary to contact an endocrinologist as soon as possible. This disease often leads to miscarriage, but an even more serious consequence is the production of autoantibodies – they provoke the development of thrombophilia.

Thyroid and pregnancy

Autoimmune thyroiditis creates big problems during pregnancy. The vessels of the placenta, through which the child receives nutrition from the mother, become clogged with blood clots, and the fetus does not receive enough oxygen or nutrients. This can lead to fetal growth retardation syndrome. That is why, when planning a pregnancy, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive examination – to check the functioning of the thyroid gland, take a test for genetic thrombophilia and, if abnormalities are detected, control the hemostasiogram (indicators of the blood coagulation system).

Many women who turn to gynecologists with the problem of infertility are simultaneously found to have various pathologies of the thyroid gland, which are almost asymptomatic, but at the same time have a pathological effect on the reproductive system. In this regard, all couples who are undergoing an examination for infertility or preparing for an IVF procedure must undergo a thyroid function examination.

On the other hand, hCG and estrogens, the so-called pregnancy hormones, can also affect the functioning of the thyroid gland. Its function changes during pregnancy, sometimes in the direction of pathology. In this case, during pregnancy, you will have to be observed not only by a gynecologist, but also by an endocrinologist.

Thyroid and breast health

Thyroid hormones can influence the development of pathological processes in the mammary gland. There are studies that confirm that a decrease in the level of thyroxine and triiodothyronine increases the risk of developing mastopathy. On the other hand, many (including pathological) changes in the thyroid gland occur during breastfeeding, but a clear causal relationship has not yet been established.

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