In the human body, age-related changes usually occur gradually and develop at different rates in different people. However, by the age of 40-45, irreversible aging processes start. The result of such changes in the organ of vision is presbyopia, or age-related farsightedness. Usually presbyopia develops due to a decrease in the elasticity of the lens, as well as the ciliary muscle and ligamentous apparatus. All this leads to a decrease in the accommodative ability of the eye, which is expressed in a slowly progressive deterioration in visual acuity when working at close range. Potentially, presbyopia is not a disease, since it is based primarily on age-related rather than pathological changes in the body.
What pathologies are inherited
Undoubtedly, genetic factors play a significant role in the development and progression of various eye diseases. Depending on certain defects in the genetic code, anomalies of the cornea, retinal dystrophy, optic nerve atrophy, congenital cataract, glaucoma, and many others can develop. However, in childhood, refractive errors are most common. These include nearsightedness, farsightedness and astigmatism. The question of the inheritance of clinical refraction has been studied for a long time.
Already at the beginning of the XIX century. scientists observed that myopia often occurs in many members of the same family, and spoke in favor of its hereditary origin. The concept of predisposition to myopia was introduced. It is she who is inherited and has a person even before his birth. Therefore, people with a predisposition to myopia should pay special attention to their children. The chance of inheriting myopia is very high. The child inherits the shape of the eyeball, cornea and features of other important structures of the human optical apparatus, so vision problems can occur both immediately after birth and during life, when the appropriate conditions are created.
Track bad habits in children
Unfavorable visual habits that can lead to problems and should be monitored as early as childhood:
low head tilt
lying down reading;
excessive visual load near;
unbalanced nutrition: the predominance of carbohydrate and lack of protein foods, vitamins A, E, C, macro- (calcium, iron, phosphorus) and microelements (copper, zinc).
Is it possible to check eyesight at home?
Yes, many ways have been developed to quite accurately identify certain problems associated with the organ of vision without leaving home.
The most common method for determining visual acuity is the Sivtsev table. It includes letters arranged in 12 rows. With 100% vision, a person is able to read the first 10 lines. It is the tenth line that corresponds to visual acuity equal to one. For home use, there is a version of the table made specifically for printers. To fit it in full scale, you will need three sheets of A4 form. You need to look at it from a distance of 2.5 meters. If a deviation is found, you should contact an ophthalmologist.
There are also various tests that are widely and effectively used both in the ophthalmologist’s office and at home. For example, Rabkin’s table is used to determine color perception. The main test set includes 26 tables with depicted numbers in different colors. A person with full color vision sees contrasting images on the tables. A color-blind person distinguishes colors on some tables, and drawings made in an inaccessible color seem to him monochrome.
Another valuable diagnostic test for self-monitoring is the Amsler test. It is a specially drawn table. Depending on what the patient sees on this table, one can conclude that there are or are no defects in the central zone of the retina.
The effect of gadgets on the eyes
The latest medical statistics claim that modern children spend up to ten hours a day at various monitors. At the same time, the maximum amount of time that a teenager can spend in front of a screen is a maximum of three hours a day, for children of primary school age – no more than an hour. And, although there is no consensus on whether gadgets themselves can cause serious visual problems, all sorts of discomfort that occurs after interacting with digital devices is still familiar to almost everyone.
The main reason for the negative effect is the violation of the permissible distance between the eyes and the screen of a smartphone, computer or TV. With prolonged consideration of objects at close range, excessive tension of the intraocular muscles occurs. The closer the object, the stronger it is. Another negative factor when using gadgets is the slowdown in blinking movements. This leads to a violation of the stability of the precorneal tear film and to the development of dry eye syndrome.
To reduce the load, when working at close range, you need to take breaks every 30-40 minutes. Be sure to walk every day, play sports if possible, monitor your posture when reading.
Choosing the right sunglasses
The choice of sunglasses should be taken responsibly. Before choosing lenses for sunglasses, you should pay attention to the labeling of the lenses. This is much more important than the choice between plastic and glass lenses. If the protection against UV radiation is 400 nanometers, then the glasses are of high quality.
Glass is less scratched, but retains ultraviolet light only partially. But high-quality polymers, like polycarbonate, prevent rays A and B from reaching the retina. Infrared rays block only polarized sunglasses.
Important to know: sunglasses do not have to be dark, because the quality of absorption of ultraviolet rays does not depend on the intensity of the color of the lenses. Quality lenses of the zero category can be completely protected from the sun. Conversely, the pupils of the eyes behind dark lenses reflexively expand and absorb more harmful rays if there is no protective filter coating. Many optical stores have equipment to check the light transmission as well as the degree of protection against UV radiation.
Having dealt with the quality of the lenses in sunglasses, you can safely choose a frame. Glasses should be light, do not put pressure on the area behind the ears, do not move off the nose. In short, they should be comfortable, light, comfortable.
Based on the above, you can easily dispel the myth about the existence of cheap sunglasses. The production of spectacle lenses is a high-tech production, which means that glasses, by definition, cannot cost little.
In-salon vision diagnostics
Done with sunglasses. What if you need glasses to correct your vision? Can you trust the tests offered in bulk in optics stores?
Several factors must be taken into account when choosing a site for vision examinations. First of all, the professionalism of the doctor. Today, ophthalmologists or certified optometrists work in network optics. Any salon has all the necessary equipment for adequate spectacle correction.
The next and possibly the most important factor is age. If we are talking about a patient under 40 without severe ophthalmic pathology, then in good optics it is always possible to solve the issue of spectacle correction. But, if we are dealing with the age category 40+, then it is advisable for such patients to go to an ophthalmologist in a clinic or medical center for a complete primary diagnostic examination. Since most eye diseases make their debut after 40 years of age and are asymptomatic, only full-fledged diagnostic examinations can fully determine the state of the visual functions of the eye.
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