Diseases, the main symptom of which is high or low blood pressure, are quite widespread. At the same time, many people learn about deviations in blood pressure from the norm only when they come to see a doctor during a preventive examination.
But pressure deviations from the norm can cause a significant blow to your health. In this case, the brain, heart, retina are most often affected. eyes and other important organs. Therefore, the issue of constant control over the value of blood pressure becomes very relevant.
It is only thanks to him that timely preventive measures can be taken, stopping the occurrence of the disease even before its development begins. This control is especially important in hypertension and diabetes, because it indirectly allows you to control the level of sugar in the blood.
Mechanical blood pressure monitors
Mechanical blood pressure monitors have been around for a long time. But the practice of their application shows that, despite the technical simplicity of this device, only specialists can make accurate measurements.
Those people who do not have a medical education or sufficient experience in handling this device most often incorrectly determine the tones by which the lower and upper limits of blood pressure are set. In addition, when using a tonometer, other errors are often made that lead to an incorrect measurement result.
The most common mistakes are:
- too much compression of the compression cuff as a result of excessive air supply to it, which entails a deterioration in hemodynamics during measurement;
- incorrect position of the cuff on the arm;
- very slow or fast cuff deflation;
- wrong choice of the place of installation of the membrane of the phonendoscope for listening to tones.
Any of these errors usually result in incorrect blood pressure readings. And if we add here the fact that mechanical blood pressure monitors go astray after about a year of operation, and they need to be adjusted (calibrated) and checked at a service center, it becomes clear that these devices are not suitable for widespread daily use.
New generation tonometers
Today, thanks to the introduction of new technologies into our lives, we have developed and successfully used automatic and semi-automatic tonometers for pressure measurement on the forearm. These are more advanced devices that provide accurate measurements due to the fact that air bleeding in them occurs automatically in a precisely calculated mode.
The difference between an automatic and a semi-automatic device is that for automatic devices, air is injected into the cuff with the help of a compressor, and for semi-automatic devices, with the help of a pear and human muscular strength. Bleeding of air from the tightening cuff in both designs occurs automatically.
When air is released, the pulsating artery transmits its vibrations to the cuff chamber, where special sensors register the changes that occur and transmit data to a computer that shows the value of blood pressure.
For the convenience of users, the functions of automatic and semi-automatic electronic tonometers for measuring blood pressure on the shoulder have been somewhat expanded. In addition to measuring pressure, they simultaneously determine the heart rate. This allows a qualified attending physician to make a more accurate diagnosis of the disease and to form a picture of possible concomitant pathologies leading to a change in the pulse rate.
The most modern models of electronic blood pressure monitors have a built-in artificial intelligence function, which greatly simplifies the procedure for taking measurements and provides guaranteed accurate results.
Another group of automatic electronic tonometers includes devices for measuring pressure on the wrist. They attract the attention of consumers with their compactness, ease of use and ease of reading. The proliferation of these measuring devices has been hampered by the misconception that measuring wrist pressure is not applicable to the elderly, as they often suffer from atherosclerosis, which prevents the sensors from capturing pulse waves correctly.
Studies have shown that the total number of people who are not suitable for wrist devices does not exceed two percent of the total number of patients.
At the same time, there is a mandatory rule that must be observed when measuring with a carpal tonometer – the device must be in line with the heart. If the device is located below this line, then the readings may be overestimated, and vice versa, above the line – underestimated.
When and how many times it is necessary to measure pressure
Cardiologists recommend measuring blood pressure at least twice a day. At the same time, each time you take measurements, you should not be limited to one reading. Take 2-3 measurements with an interval of 2-3 minutes. In this case, the resulting average result will be the most accurate indicator.