In this article, we will try to answer the following questions:
Why do you need regular examinations and examinations by a gynecologist?
What happens at the appointment with a specialist?
How to prepare for a visit to the gynecologist?
What you need to know before visiting a gynecologist?
Often for the first time, girls come to see a gynecologist at the age of 15-16 during medical examinations in schools.
Separately, it is worth noting that examination and examination by a gynecologist are necessary if you plan to start or, moreover, have already begun sexual activity.
After the onset of sexual activity, visiting a gynecologist and taking tests should become regular, but the regularity depends on specific situations. So, this is what you need to do:
with each change of sexual partner;
2 times a year in the absence of complaints and a constant sexual partner;
in case of complaints, it is recommended to immediately consult a doctor.
Many diseases in gynecology proceed without pronounced clinical manifestations, imperceptible to the woman herself.
With a long course and in the absence of treatment, they can lead to dangerous complications, which are much more difficult to treat, and sometimes even impossible.
One of the most dangerous complications today is infertility.
How is an appointment with a gynecologist?
We will try to draw your attention to a few simple points that are most often neglected by women, but which you need to know.
First of all, it is worth mentioning the menstrual cycle – do not plan to visit a gynecologist during your period, as it will be impossible to take the necessary tests, as well as conduct an examination.
It is worth mentioning that with bleeding, that are not associated with menstruation, or if menstruation is too long, consult a doctor immediately.
If you keep a calendar of critical days, be sure to take it with you. If you haven’t got a calendar like this yet, be sure to get one.
It is recommended for every girl to start a calendar from the moment the first menstruation appears.
At the appointment, the doctor will definitely ask about the age at which menstruation began, the regularity of the cycle, the duration of the menstrual cycle (the number of days from the first day of menstruation to the next first day of menstruation), the date of the last menstruation.
With a calendar handy, you can easily answer these questions.
Do not forget about hygiene procedures before visiting a doctor.
One month before visiting a gynecologist, refuse to take antibiotics, antiviral drugs; do not use vaginal suppositories, creams or tablets.
This is necessary for the reliability of the survey results.
If you plan to get tested, it is recommended do not urinate before visiting a doctor for 1.5-2 hours and exclude sexual contact for 2-3 days before visiting the doctor.
The study of hormonal status is carried out on an empty stomach on certain days menstrual cycle.
If an ultrasound examination (ultrasound) of the pelvic organs is to be performed, it is carried out with an empty bladder. If the woman is not sexually active, the bladder must be full.
Modern clinics, as a rule, are equipped with all the necessary materials for examination.
However, before visiting the doctor, you should clarify what you need to have with you at the reception of the medical institution or directly with the doctor.
What tests to take and why?
The answer to this question will be of more interest to girls and women who have not yet contacted a gynecologist, but are planning a visit.
The visit begins with a survey (that is, a conversation with a doctor), in which the necessary information is clarified. They usually start with complaints.
When describing your complaints, you do not hesitate to talk about everything that worries you, specifying how long this happens: perhaps you have traced some pattern in the appearance of your complaints (on certain days of the menstrual cycle, after sexual intercourse, etc.); whether you went to the doctor with this problem or not, whether or not you underwent treatment, whether it helped you or not.
If you have been treated before, the doctor will ask how you were treated, with what drugs and for how long. Be sure to ask about the menstrual cycle.
As a rule, the doctor asks questions related to sexual life: whether or not there have been sexual contacts, the age of onset of sexual activity, the number of sexual partners, the presence of any diseases in sexual partners, etc.
All these questions are of interest to the doctor not out of idle curiosity, but to determine the scope of your examination.
After the interview, the doctor conducts an examination and, if necessary, takes tests.
Inspection of virgin girls is carried out without a gynecological mirror.
Examination of girls and women who are sexually active is carried out on a gynecological chair using a gynecological mirror.
As has been mentioned more than once, many diseases occur without pronounced clinical manifestations, in the absence of complaints, they can be detected after receiving the results of the examination.
When visiting a gynecologist only a smear is required, which has very little information content. Additional examinations are carried out at the request of the patient.
Material for research on infections such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, trichomoniasis, human papillomavirus, genital herpes, as well as for analysis of ureaplasma, mycoplasma and microflora is discharge from the genitals.
Blood from a vein taken for analysis for syphilis, HIV infection, hepatitis B and C, hormonal profile studies, biochemical analysis.
Ultrasound of the pelvic organs – examination of the internal organs of the reproductive system.
It is carried out with a special sensor, as a rule, in 2 ways – through the anterior abdominal wall (when the sensor is placed on the stomach) and intravaginally, when the sensor is inserted into the vagina.
For girls and women who have not lived sexually, ultrasound of the pelvic organs is performed only through the anterior abdominal wall (the bladder must be full).
Colposcopic examination – this is an examination of the cervix using a special device – a colposcope, which magnifies the image several times, which allows you to examine the cervix in more detail.
Cytological examination of the cervix – study of the cellular composition of the mucous membrane of the cervix.
Recently, it has been referred to as a screening (preventive) examination of women for the diagnosis of early stages of cervical diseases, since it allows to detect pathological changes that occur at the cellular level in the early stages, including in the absence of visible changes.
Hysteroscopy – examination of the uterine cavity using an ultra-thin optical instrument – a hysteroscope, which is inserted into the uterine cavity through the vagina and cervix.
Currently, this method is the most informative instrumental study of the state of the endometrium of the uterus. Hysteroscopy can be both diagnostic and therapeutic.
Separate diagnostic curettage of the cervical canal and uterine cavity is a surgical manipulation that is widely used in gynecological practice.
The operation allows you to remove pathological formations from the uterine cavity and cervical canal and conduct a histological examination of the obtained material (performed with hyperplastic processes (hyperplasia) of the endometrium, endometrial polyps, polyps of the cervical canal; uterine bleeding, suspected malignant diseases of the endometrium and cervix, etc. e) .
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – a kind of tomographic method for studying internal organs and tissues, which allows you to get an image of the organ under study.
Computed tomography (CT) – tomographic method of studying the internal organs of a person using x-rays.
The method is based on the measurement and complex computer processing of the difference in X-ray attenuation by tissues of different density and makes it possible to obtain images of the organs under study.
Diagnostic laparoscopy – this is a surgical method when a video camera and manipulators are inserted into the pelvic cavity through 3 punctures in the abdominal wall.
The method allows you to examine the internal organs of the female reproductive system from the inside and, if necessary, perform surgical treatment (therapeutic laparoscopy).
The listed research methods are carried out only if any diseases are suspected and are not included in the list of mandatory when visiting a gynecologist.