Incorrect bite: when and how it is formed, what problems it threatens and whether it can be corrected

Health Tips

What threatens the wrong bite?

There are 2 large groups of bite anomalies: skeletal and dento-alveolar. The oral cavity is the primary link of the digestive tract, food processing begins here, in which the teeth and the complex of muscles of the dentoalveolar system are directly involved. This same system begins to distribute the chewing load, but if the bite is not correct, it will close and the load will be distributed incorrectly, irrationally. As a result, the same imbalance – some teeth will be overloaded to a greater extent and they will locally have chips, cracks, traumatic periodontitis, “knocking out” of some teeth, etc. The same with the muscles: some groups get a big load – muscle pains appear. Since this is a single system, the temporomandibular joint will also suffer, changes in the structure of the TMJ will occur (dislocation of the articular disc, pathological changes in the ligaments and bone structures), which can lead to a click, noise in the ear, pain or even the inability to tear off the mouth . In addition, severe headaches can occur – you must admit, all this greatly impairs the quality of life.

Local changes in the dentition, malocclusion, muscle hypertonicity also have a great influence on posture. Therefore, the dentist-orthodontist often turns to the help of related specialists: gnathologists, osteopaths, kinesiologists.

Pay attention to children’s nutrition

The reason for the formation of skeletal anomalies is, as a rule, genetics and most likely the parent’s profile will be passed on to the child. But even this is fixable if, knowing about the consequences, the parents will bring the child to the orthodontist to control changes and timely intervention. Therefore, it is recommended to show the child to the orthodontist at the age of 4-6 years.

There are many reasons for dentoalveolar bite anomalies. Let’s start with what forms the bite. Bite is the relationship of the dentition with maximum contact and complete closure of the teeth of the upper and lower jaws. And when does this closure occur?

We are talking about a permanent bite, about the closure with which, ideally, we live all our lives. Note that the only bone of the skull that is mobile is the lower jaw. And she finds her correct position at the time of the formation of the “key of occlusion”, when the first permanent molars erupt – tubercles and fissures, thanks to which the lower jaw finds its place. This age is 6-7 years old. And what happens during this period with children?

Now we are witnessing the following trend: the nature of nutrition has changed, children’s food has become simpler – everything is as soft as possible, crushed, cut into small pieces. There is no normal chewing, respectively, there is no adequate chewing load – the jaw does not grow, the teeth do not erupt in time. Children love and often eat a lot of sweets. A large amount of simple carbohydrates and sugar leads to tooth decay. And the first caries of permanent teeth, of course, is the caries of the first molars. It was then that the first fillings appeared, and very often these fillings are “sticky” fillings that do not have any tooth anatomy. And it is at this moment that the first pathological changes in the bite can begin.

Bite is not just about teeth

The type of breathing of the child is important – you need to breathe through your nose. And be sure to contact the ENT if there are problems with nasal breathing and night apnea appears. The type of breathing also affects the formation of the correct bite. In addition to the fact that during nasal breathing, the nasal passages and sinuses are correctly formed, the upper jaw is also correctly formed, since it is an integral part of the bottom of the nasal cavity and the maxillary sinus.

So, in the formation of the correct bite, it is important:

  • chewing load on the jaws for their full development;
  • teeth contacts – “key of occlusion”;
  • correct nasal breathing;
  • muscle balance, because the formation of bite also depends on the muscle tone of the tongue and the circular muscle of the mouth.

What effect does the baby nipple have on the bite?

The nipple is needed to satisfy the innate sucking reflex. When sucking the breast, the position of the muscles and their tone are reorganized, the tongue occupies a position below, “laying down” on the bottom of the oral cavity and forming the dental arch of the lower jaw. Therefore, speaking of the nipple, it should maximally repeat the shape of the breast when sucking, precisely to control the position of the tongue – such a nipple is called orthodontic. Only its use is allowed. If the shape of the nipple is round, then the tongue “does not understand” where it needs to be and simply “walks” freely in the oral cavity. Often it is the use of a pacifier that leads to the occurrence of pathologies such as open or distal bite.

Bite correction is a long-term process. The sooner we start treatment, the faster, cheaper and more effective it will be. The older we get, the more difficult it is to treat bite pathologies and the more expensive. Often then we are talking about combined or compromise treatment, when with the help of only an orthodontist it is difficult to cure the pathology of the bite and the help of related specialists is needed.

Most patients “aged” after undergoing orthodontic treatment, need rational prosthetics. On average, orthodontic treatment of an adult patient takes 1.5-2 years. But these are average values, since the movement of teeth and the construction of a functional bite is an individual process.


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