Mastopathy or fibrocystic disease is a dishormonal benign disease of the mammary glands, characterized by hyperplasia (excessive growth) of its tissue.
Seals in the chest periodically appear, grow, decrease and disappear. But they can (!) become the first link in the chain of transformations into malignant tumors. Therefore, women diagnosed with mastopathy belong to a group of people with an increased risk of cancer, they are observed and treated by an oncologist.
Risk factors for developing mastopathy:
- heredity (the presence of breast cancer in the mother or sister);
- gynecological and endocrine diseases (uterine fibroids, endometriosis, elevated blood levels of the hormone prolactin, thyroid pathology);
- lack of pregnancies and childbirth, late first pregnancy, the birth of a large fetus (4 kg or more), artificial termination of pregnancy (in women who have had 3 or more abortions, the risk of mastopathy increases by 7 times);
- absence, short duration (less than 1 month) and a very long period of breastfeeding (more than a year), more often the disease develops in the left mammary gland (this is due to less mobility of the left arm and more frequent feeding of the left breast;
- there is a connection between mechanical trauma and the subsequent development of breast disease;
- transferred purulent or postpartum mastitis;
- dietary factors (fatty high-calorie foods, strong tea, coffee, chocolate contribute to the occurrence of mastopathy);
Manifestations of mastopathy:
For mastopathy, the most characteristic complaints are the appearance of soreness, engorgement and swelling of the mammary glands, discharge from the nipples of a clear or colostrum-like liquid. The most common is a combination of symptoms of mastopathy and premenstrual syndrome.
- Stand straight in front of the mirror. Carefully examine your mammary glands – are there any protrusions, retractions or other violations of the shape of the breast, darkening of certain areas of the skin of the breast, especially the nipple, its retraction. Turning half a turn to the right and left, inspect the left and right breasts.
- Put your hands behind your head and in this position again examine the chest straight and half a turn.
- Feel the left mammary gland with the right palm flat: if there are any indurations, tumors. If the chest is large, support it from below with your left hand, feeling flat with the palm of your right hand. Feel the right breast in the same way.
- Lie on your back, put your right hand behind your head, and with the palm of your left hand feel your right chest. Exactly the same – left. Carry out this simple procedure every month during the period of greatest hormonal rest (ie, after the end of menstruation or shortly before them).
- Inspection and manual examination of the mammary glands, examination of axillary, subclavian, cervical lymph nodes;
- Ultrasound of the mammary glands and lymph nodes or X-ray mammography (all women over 40 years old);
- Blood tests (general analysis, biochemical study, hormonal status, tumor markers);
- If cysts or nodes are detected, they are punctured with a cytological examination of the contents.
Modern methods of treatment depend on the type of diagnosed mastopathy, and first of all – on its cause. Therefore, it is first necessary to eliminate the provoking factors: psychological pressure, hormonal failure, gynecological diseases, liver dysfunctions, etc. Sometimes eliminating the cause is enough for the problem of mastopathy to be resolved in the most favorable way.
Small diffuse cysts are treated conservatively. For example, herbal medicine: fees from the root of valerian, motherwort, wild rose, corn stigmas, immortelle, birch buds are brewed in a tablespoon in half a glass of boiling water.
Not so long ago, the homeopathic preparation “Mastodinon” appeared, but is already a success with women. For women of the older age group during menopause, the drug “Klimadinon” is effective. A drug produced from brown seaweed, “lamin”, is successfully used. In addition, the condition is significantly improved by multivitamin preparations containing vitamins A, groups B, E.
Most scientists believe that hormonal contraceptives have a positive effect on the condition of the mammary gland. Only the choice of a specific drug from the many existing ones should be left to the doctor. In any case, the doctor prescribes the treatment, because mastopathy, depending on the variety of its causes, is treated just as differently. Therefore, no self-treatment is unacceptable!