In order for a woman to become pregnant with regular intercourse without contraception, four basic conditions must be met:
- the presence of ovulation in a woman – the regular appearance of a follicle with an egg;
- the presence of passable fallopian tubes;
- no pathology of the uterine cavity;
- normal production of spermatozoa in a partner. And if at least one condition is not met, there will be problems with pregnancy. In general, there are a number of main reasons that make it difficult to naturally conceive.
In the first place, experts take out age. With its increase in a woman, the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in the eggs increases. This significantly complicates the achievement of a normally developing pregnancy. We observe the first changes already from the age of 35, after 40 years the quality of the eggs changes both in terms of the quality of the genetic material and in terms of energy reserves in the oocytes. Another problem of age is the decrease in ovarian reserve. The possibility and success of natural conception is directly related to the number of years lived – this is a biological given.
“If a woman wants to build a career first, without giving up the opportunity to become a mother, it is worth considering a safety net – egg cryopreservation (fertilized or not) at the peak of fertility, up to 35 years. Modern methods of quick freezing – vitrification – provide almost 100% exit from hibernation and make it possible to have a child at the most convenient time for parents.
Any disruption of the complex hormonal balance can lead to problems with ovulation. The reasons are different: from diseases of the ovaries, thyroid gland, adrenal glands to powerful stress. After a series of tests, the hormonal background is corrected. As a rule, this gives a good (up to 80%) result, otherwise it is recommended to turn to assisted reproductive technologies.
Fallopian tube problems
Obstruction or absence of the fallopian tubes is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. As a rule, this is a consequence of inflammation, as a result of which a thin (internal diameter – only 0.1 mm) channel “sticks together”, preventing the meeting of the egg and sperm. “If obstruction of the fallopian tubes or other developmental anomalies and pathological processes in the uterus led to infertility, surgical intervention may be the solution. However, women who have already had unsuccessful attempts at such treatment, as a rule, turn to reproductive clinics, and in this case, IVF, for example, gives a good result.”
A common gynecological disease that can cause infertility. It often occurs in young women and is a consequence of the migration and subsequent growth of cells of the lining of the uterus (endometrium) on other organs. Due to the fact that the endometrial cells follow the monthly “program” of the female menstrual cycle, internal bleeding occurs, which leads not only to pain and poor health, but also to inflammation and adhesions. In addition, the disease provokes a decrease in the supply of eggs – ovarian reserve. In this case, an integrated approach to treatment is required: hormone therapy, in some cases, surgical intervention.
Such benign diseases can lead to the absence of pregnancy. With large sizes of fibroids (more than 4 cm), surgical treatment is recommended. The presence of pathology (polyps, adhesions – synechiae, submucosal nodes) also prevents implantation. In this case, it is necessary with the help of a small surgical intervention – hysteroscopy or hysteroresectoscopy – to remove the pathology of the uterine cavity, and then plan a pregnancy.
Male infertility, bad habits and more
In almost half of the cases, infertility is caused by male problems. Therefore, the examination when planning pregnancy should be carried out not only by a woman, but also by a man. Moreover, it is very simple to assess the quality of spermatogenesis – it is enough to pass a spermogram. What problems can it reveal?
- inferiority of spermatozoa (violation of their mobility and viability);
- a sharp decrease in their number;
- obstacles in the way of spermatozoa advancement. Most of the causes are successfully eliminated by andrologists and urologists.
It is also impossible not to say about such annoying reasons as being overweight or, conversely, a low body mass index (BMI). Often this can lead to hormonal disorders. Accordingly, pregnancy occurs only after the normalization of weight. Smoking and alcohol have a depressing effect on the reproductive processes in the body. They affect the hormonal background, lead to violations of spermatogenesis. Therefore, in the treatment of infertility, it is extremely important to give up bad habits or reduce them to a minimum. That is, you can consume no more than 100 g of pure ethanol per week: 2.5 liters of beer (2.5%), 1 liter of wine (12%) or 350 ml of strong drinks (40%).
And in the finale, we will name one more, the most mysterious reason: infertility of unknown origin. In every fifth couple, the causes of infertility cannot be determined. Spouses can undergo examinations for years, which will be normal, and pregnancy does not occur. We are talking about “psychological infertility.” Doctors often advise such patients to pay attention to IVF. And someone is helped by working with a psychologist and the opportunity to “let go” of the topic of conception, to switch to other areas of life. And then in a couple, which for many years was considered infertile, a long-awaited pregnancy occurs.
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