Obesity: statistics, causes, symptoms, treatment

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Energy in reserve is deposited in fat cells. The fat of our body with a weight of about 70 kilograms at the same time contains an amount of energy 100 times more than a person can eat in a day.

In order for the body to properly manage its fat stores and maintain its weight at the required level, the hypothalamus (the main endocrine gland of the body) and adipose tissue constantly exchange complex signals through the production of special hormones. These signals regulate appetite, digestion rate, total energy costs and our the weight.

Why do people need fat?

Adipose tissue, which usually in the body is about 1/5 of the total body weight of a man and 1/4 of the weight of a woman, is a very active tissue of the body in which metabolic processes are constantly taking place, such as the reaction of fat breakdown with the formation of energy and excess storage.

In case of chronic excess of consumed calories above the energy costs of the body, it accumulates additional amounts of fat, which gradually forms pathological obesity.

Scientists have calculated that it is enough to exceed the diet by 100 kcal daily, which is equal to the calorie content of three walnuts, in order to become the owner of an extra 4 kilograms at the end of the year.

definition of obesity

Obesity is not an age feature or type of human constitution. It cannot be perceived solely as the result of constant overeating of buns and cakes, or a sign of good health (many people think that if full, it means healthy).

Obesity is a pathological accumulation of fats in the body. Obesity is a disease caused by a disruption in the interactions between the pituitary gland and adipose tissue, in which the brain changes its concept of normal body weight. It is because of such violations that the eating behavior of a fattening person, his psychological characteristics and tendencies to choose a certain lifestyle are transformed.

Types of obesity

There are two types of obesity – primary, or food, and secondary, arising as a symptom of various endocrine and metabolic diseases. The main distinguishing feature of primary obesity is the so-called leptin deficiency, the lack of a special substance that helps the brain to adequately assess body weight.

How is the diagnosis made?

There are many ways to determine overweight – not all of them are accurate, previously doctors focused on the weight-to-height ratio or R. Brock’s formula (weight was considered ideal if it coincided with the coefficient obtained by subtracting 100 units from growth).

In addition, measurements of the thickness of fat folds or body circumferences were made (for example, they measure the waist and hips). This does not show an objective picture, since the body type is different for everyone. Today, doctors use tables that correct for body types, and BMI (the ratio of weight in kilograms to the area of ​​\u200b\u200bthe skin in square meters) provides the most valuable information.

Pathology is considered to be an excess of body weight from ideal according to Brock by 1/5 for gentlemen and a quarter for ladies. Doctors believe that due to excess weight there is a significant increase in diseases and a sharp jump in mortality. If body weight is higher than normal by 50% in a man, and 2/3 in a woman, a severe stage of obesity develops.

Statistics data

Obesity is widespread, and its distribution depends on the level of the economy. On the planet, 1.5 billion people are overweight to varying degrees, and a third of them are severely obese. On average, in economically developed countries, about a third of the adult population and the elderly suffer from excess weight.

The generally recognized leader in obesity is the United States, where 400 thousand people die every year from excessive weight. In Russia, after thirty such patients become almost 35%, and by fifty it reaches 75%. In addition, up to 10% of children are too fat and have a very real chance to join the ranks of people suffering from this disease.

Obesity as a disease is not limited to causing cosmetic, psychological and even physical inconvenience. Obesity is a recognized risk factor in the formation of atherosclerosis with complications, hypertension or varicose veins, and thrombophlebitis, gallstones, arthritis, osteochondrosis, flat feet and gout attacks. And this is not the whole bunch of diseases.

Obesity symptoms and treatment

Manifestations of obesity

The classification of obesity, in addition to its division into primary and secondary in form, provides for the allocation of android (apple), ganoid (pear-shaped) and mixed types.

For android, or apple-type obesity, deposits of fat on the abdomen and chest area, shoulders, and also in the abdomen around the internal organs are characteristic. For gynoid, or pear-type obesity, fats are predominantly deposited on the thighs, in the buttocks and in the lower body.

The apple type of fat deposition characterizes men more, women are more inclined to the second. It depends on the levels female sex hormones differing in men and women. Moreover, female obesity is much worse for diets, and it is always more difficult for women to lose weight than for men.

Mixed obesity combines the signs of android and ganoid, but is characterized by a high propensity for disease and rapid weight gain. There is also obesity with a predominant accumulation of visceral fat (fat in the abdomen) and exclusively subcutaneous fat.

obesity treatment

Obesity is not easy to cure – there is a dietary or drug correction, restriction of food intake and calories, or radical methods – surgical removal of fat, suturing the volume of the stomach, however, all these methods do not guarantee that the weight will not return, since the problem is not only in nutrition.

Therefore, work on weight loss must be carried out in conjunction with a nutritionist, psychologist and therapist. Only long-term work on oneself and the help of professionals can cure obesity or reduce its severity.

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