“Pear” or “apple”: what type of figure is the most dangerous and how to lose weight without diets

Health Tips

Table of contents

How to self-identify obesity

Types of obesity and why they are dangerous

What affects metabolic rate

Healthy Eating Habits

How to self-identify obesity

To determine overweight, it is recommended to measure body weight, height and determine the body mass index (BMI). The latter is equal to a person’s weight in kilograms (kg) divided by their height in meters (m) squared. An adult with a BMI of 25–29.9 is overweight, and an adult with a BMI over 30 is obese.

BMI 18.5-24.9 characterizes normal body weight. If the BMI exceeds 40, this is morbid (extreme) obesity. However, BMI does not provide information on a person’s body fat percentage, but is a useful general guideline.

One of the important categories of obesity not covered by BMI is the so-called “abdominal (visceral) obesity” – excessive deposition of adipose tissue in the middle part of the body. Waist circumference greater than 94 cm in men and greater than 80 cm in women is a diagnostic criterion for abdominal obesity.

Another way to determine the redistribution of adipose tissue is the ratio of waist to hips. According to WHO, the normal value of this indicator is 0.9 for men and 0.85 for women. In both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio greater than 1.0 increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and other conditions associated with being overweight.

Types of obesity and why they are dangerous

The concern is not just about how much fat a person has, but where that fat is located. The distribution of body fat in men and women is different. Peripheral or gynoid (female) obesity is characterized by the deposition of extra pounds in the lower body – in the lower abdomen, on the hips, buttocks. This redistribution of adipose tissue is called a “pear”. It is believed that the presence of a pear-shaped body does not negatively affect health. That is, it is more profitable to be a “pear”.

The central (visceral) or abdominal type is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in the abdomen. Due to the increase in the volume of the abdomen, the shape of the body resembles an apple. Abdominal obesity is more characteristic of men, which is why it is called male or android. Central obesity for an apple-shaped body is considered a more accurate predictor (predictor) of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease, as well as the development of diabetes and cancer.

Abdominal fat is made up of both subcutaneous and visceral fat, which is found deeper in, around, and within the internal organs. Visceral fat negatively affects blood lipid levels and insulin resistance. Even if a person is not overweight, having a lot of belly fat can increase the risk of disease and even dementia. To determine an apple or pear figure, you need to measure the waist and the ratio of the waist to the hips.

What affects metabolic rate

We all know that metabolism slows down with age. The process starts already from about 25 years old – on average, by 0.5-1% annually. There are several reasons that trigger it: loss of muscle mass, decrease in activity and the natural aging of your metabolic processes.

Four key factors affect metabolic rate:

  • resting metabolic rate: how many calories the body burns while resting or sleeping. This is the smallest amount needed to sustain life and function.

  • The thermic effect of food: how many calories the body spends on the digestion and assimilation of food, which is 10% of the daily calorie intake.

  • Physical activity accounts for approximately 10-30% of daily calories burned. For very active people, this number can reach 50%.

  • Thermogenesis of non-exercise activity: Calories expended while washing dishes and other household chores while standing. Studies also show that older people burn approximately 29% fewer calories.

Other factors that can affect metabolism include age, height, muscle mass, and hormonal factors.

On average, an adult loses 3–8% of muscle in every decade after age 30. In fact, by age 80, a person has about 30% less muscle than at age 20. Studies have shown that people in their 70s have 9kg less muscle mass and an 11% lower resting metabolic rate than people in their 40s.

Good habits for every day

Dieting is difficult, because it is a restriction in its purest form. A subscription purchased to the hall reminds us of itself with a mute reproach, in the evening we habitually want to have a snack with something tasty and high-calorie. It makes sense to remember the theory of small steps and gradually introduce good habits into the diet. They will definitely lead to natural weight loss. It is necessary not to limit yourself rigidly, not to blame for every bite you eat, but purposefully, gradually change your eating behavior. Here’s how our expert advises to do it.

  • Store more fruits, low-fat dairy products (low-fat milk and low-fat yogurt), vegetables, and whole grains at home and at work.

  • Try to have dinner every day with the whole family in the kitchen, at the dining table. This will help you focus on healthy eating.

  • Buy a book of healthy food recipes and cook yourself.

  • Bring your lunch and snacks to work. This will give you more control over what you eat.

  • Put your snacks on a plate instead of eating from a package.

  • Don’t skip or delay meals and be sure to plan snacks.

  • Do not get carried away with drinks with sweeteners. Many of them do not really contain calories, and thus reduce the energy value. However, sweeteners are much sweeter than regular sugar, thus affecting the taste buds more intensely. The more intense the taste of sweet, the less sensitive the receptors become, and in order to feel the taste, we need more over time, which stimulates the appetite and cravings for sweets.

  • Enjoy your meal, don’t eat too fast. Try to make eating healthy a pleasure, not a chore.

  • Be active. Recommended regular physical activity: at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity or 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise per week.

  • Watch your sleep pattern. Research shows that lack of sleep can slow down your metabolism.

  • Eat more protein-rich foods. Eating them can help fight slow metabolism.

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