Preparing for the examination: what you need to know before taking…

Health Tips

Health care is impossible without medical examinations. But how do you properly prepare for them? We know that tests need to be taken on an empty stomach, and certain foods, alcohol, medications, and even physical activity can affect test results! “Women’s Passions” will tell you how to properly prepare for the examination, because the subsequent treatment depends on its results!

**Regular examinations** are not very popular, but they are necessary. When evaluating the results of laboratory tests, the doctor is faced with a number of factors. He needs to take into account the age, gender of the patient, the physiological state (pregnancy, childbirth, menstrual cycle, menopause). However_there are factors that depend only on the patient,_which may affect the results of laboratory tests. Let’s consider the most important of them.

meal

Donate blood for any analysis should be on an empty stomach, i.e. 10-12 hours after the last meal (this time is required for the digestion, absorption and assimilation of food by the cells of the body). This is a very important condition for evaluating metabolic processes.

In addition, if you donate blood after a meal, it will contain a large amount of fat (you can’t fool a doctor here!), And the study will either be impossible, or the results will be greatly distorted. And this can lead to incorrect, unreasonable treatment.

If you are on a diet or fasting, then the body is forced to use as energy not glucose from food, but fatty acids that are in adipose tissue (after all, that is why we lose weight).

But at the same time, the breakdown of proteins also increases, which leads to a decrease in skin elasticity, the appearance of wrinkles. nails and hair becomes dull and brittle, the man looks older than his age.

With prolonged complete starvation, the protein structures of the cells of all organs are destroyed. And if fasting lasts more than 40 days, irreversible consequences occur, tissues and organs begin to break down, a person may die.

All this is reflected in the indicators of metabolism. So, when fasting for more than 48 hours, the level of bilirubin in the blood can increase, when fasting for more than 72 hours, there is a decrease in glucose concentration to the lower limit of the norm, an increase in the content of free fatty acids, urea.

Eating fatty foods may lead to an increase in the level of potassium, triacylglycerides (TAG), alkaline phosphatase.

Excessive protein load (meat, protein diet) increases the content of ammonia and urea, which significantly increases the load on the liver and kidneys due to the removal of these substances from the body, leads to the appearance of urates in the urine. Especially such nutrition is contraindicated in patients with impaired liver and kidney function.

Bananas, pineapples, tomatoes, avocados rich in serotonin. Serotonin calms the nervous system, however, when examining urine for 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, these products must be excluded three days before the test, otherwise the results will be overestimated.

The use of coffee, strong tea, cola, caffeinated drinks causes:

increase in the blood and urine of catecholamines, free fatty acids, glucose, cortisol, carboxyhemoglobin, the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes;

decreased glucose tolerance;

increases the secretion of gastric juice, hydrochloric acid, pepsin;

leads to an increase in diuresis, a decrease in the relative density of urine.

How to take a blood test

Alcohol intake increases the concentration of lactate, uric acid and triacylglycerides and reduces blood glucose levels.

Smokers the level of c-reactive protein is increased, which proves the presence of chronic inflammation in the broncho-pulmonary system. In addition, smoking leads to increased binding of hemoglobin to carbon monoxide, which makes it impossible to deliver oxygen to organs and tissues.

To cope with this, the immune system increases the number and size of red blood cells, hemoglobin levels. That’s why high levels of hemoglobin and red blood cells in smokers are not an indicator of health. This is the body’s cry for help!

Smoking contributes the development of atherosclerosis (increased LDL), falsely overestimates the content of blood glucose, promotes the development of tumor processes (increases the content of cancer-embryonic antigens).

Physical exercises

On the eve of the laboratory study, it is necessary to reduce physical activity. After a one-hour intense physical activity, the activity of some enzymes (aldolase, CPK, AsaT, LDH) may remain elevated during the day.

Prolonged physical activity leads to an increase in blood levels of sex hormones, including male sex hormones (testosterone, androstenedione). This leads to an increase in muscle mass and increases the amount of luteinizing hormone in the blood.

Medicines

Some medicines can have a significant effect on the results of laboratory tests. Oral contraceptives, diuretics (hypothiazid) falsely increase the level of calcium in the blood.

Paracetamol, ascorbic acid, furosemide increase the level of glucose. Hepatitis B vaccine, oral contraceptives, vitamin A increase the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Antibacterial drugs, aspirin, indomethacin reduce the level of hemoglobin in the blood.

Therefore, if possible, medications should be discontinued before the blood test, or the doctor should be informed about the medications being taken.

Blood sampling

When taking blood from a vein, it is unacceptable to work with the hand (clench and unclench your fist), and also use a tourniquet for more than 2 minutes. This leads to a false increase in the concentration of bilirubin, blood coagulation factors, blood cells, hormones, cholesterol, calcium.

To obtain reliable results of laboratory tests, it is necessary:

before the study, refrain from physical exertion, stress and alcohol intake, do not smoke for at least an hour before blood sampling;

2-3 days before the study, it is necessary to limit the intake of fatty, fried and spicy foods;

do not eat after dinner (and make dinner itself light): you can only drink water and not a drop of juice, tea, coffee (especially with sugar);

On the eve of the test, go to bed at your usual time and get up no later than an hour before taking blood.

It is recommended to donate blood in the early morning hours, and before medical and diagnostic procedures (ultrasound, massage, physiotherapy, x-ray studies).

Remember that in order to correctly evaluate and compare the results of laboratory tests, it is recommended that they be carried out at the same time in the same laboratory.

It is important to inform your doctor about the medications you are taking, even if they are only oral contraceptives.

Larisa YEGUNEVA,
general practitioner

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