Pyelonephritis is an infectious and inflammatory disease of the kidneys.
With pyelonephritis, one kidney is more often affected, less often both. The cause of pyelonephritis is an infection that enters the kidneys through the blood (if there is a focus of infection in the body) or ascending from the bladder and ureters. More often than others, pyelonephritis is caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococci.
With a good level of immunity and a normal outflow of urine, the likelihood of pyelonephritis is not great. The risk of getting sick increases with prolonged stress, hypothermia, untreated diseases of the urinary system, other chronic infections in the body, as well as in violation of the urinary system itself, if there are any obstacles to the outflow of urine: stones in the kidneys, ureters, kinks of the ureters , prolapse of the kidneys and so on.
Women are more susceptible to pyelonephritis: the urethra is short and wide, which makes them more prone to urinary infections. The likelihood of pyelonephritis also increases in pregnant women: against the background of reduced immunity, compression of the ureters by the pregnant uterus can slow down the outflow of urine, which will allow the infection to settle in the kidneys, and can cause symptoms of pyelonephritis.
Acute pyelonephritis is manifested by an increase in body temperature up to 38-39 ° C, weakness, nausea, headaches. There is a feeling of heaviness or aching pain in the lumbar region from the side of the affected kidney.
In chronic pyelonephritis, obvious signs of the disease may be absent for a long time. Most often, the disease is detected by chance during the examination or periodic pain in the lower back becomes the reason for going to the doctor. Very often, chronic pyelonephritis is a hidden cause of arterial hypertension.
Often the disease accompanies urolithiasis and various anomalies in the structure and location of the kidneys. In the analysis of urine, a large number of bacteria, leukocytes, erythrocytes may be present.
Treatment of pyelonephritis
The main thing in the treatment of pyelonephritis is to eliminate the cause that caused it. The infection is fought with the help of antibiotics, to normalize the normal outflow of urine, sometimes they resort to surgical intervention.
Additional means in the treatment of pyelonephritis are diuretics, drugs that thin the blood, restorative therapy. It is recommended to follow a diet with salt restriction up to 10 g per day, with the exception of fatty, spicy, peppery. Patients with pyelonephritis should observe a sufficient drinking regimen, not limiting themselves to fluids. Cranberry juice has a good effect.