Radiation, in the generally accepted sense of the word, is high-energy radiation that can harm human health.
Radio waves, the heat of a heater, the light of a light bulb – all these are different types of electromagnetic radiation that are absolutely harmless to humans.
As the energy increases, the radiation becomes more dangerous. For example, staying too long on the beach often results in skin burns. This is the result of exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun, a higher energy.
Radiation is the emission (radiation) of particles or electromagnetic waves that carry an incomparably greater supply of energy, dangerous not only for health, but also for human life.
Radiation: what happens?
Gamma radiation has the highest penetrating power. It is able to pass through walls, concrete, large layers of water and earth.
beta radiation has a significantly lower penetrating power and is completely absorbed by a layer of air of several meters or by the wall of the house.
alpha radiation Worst of all passes through obstacles. Even a piece of paper can serve as protection against it.
Thus, alpha and beta radiation is most dangerous for the body when exposed from the inside. Sources of such radiation can get inside with air or food. In addition, they can leave radioactive burns on contact with the skin.
Gamma radiation affects the body equally strongly from the outside, from the inside, therefore, one can protect oneself from such radiation only by driving a considerable distance from the source of radiation.
What is background radiation?
Radioactive radiation is constantly present around us: this is the radiation of the Sun and radioactive elements (in the composition of water, soil, air). The natural background is not harmful to health. Its value lies within 0.1 μSv per hour.
The radiation background is higher in cities with a large number of multi-storey buildings: concrete, granite and other building materials have increased radioactivity.
Read more: What is
to avoid infection?
When does radiation become dangerous?
Depending on the dose, radiation has a different effect on human health.
- 0.0007-0.002 Natural annual dose of an ordinary person
- 0.05 Maximum allowable dose for nuclear industry workers, radiologists, etc.
- 0.1 High risk of gene mutations
- 0.25 Single dose limit in case of emergency
- 1.0 Dose of acute radiation sickness
- 3-5 Without treatment, 50% of those exposed die within 1-2 months due to impaired activity of bone marrow cells.
- 100 Death occurs after a few hours or days due to damage to the central nervous system
Cells of the body are most exposed to radiation during division. Therefore, the first impact of radiation is taken by tissues that are actively renewed: cells of the hematopoietic system, intestinal mucosa, reproductive system. Further, the endocrine and nervous systems are affected.
For an ordinary person who is not in close proximity to a source of radiation, small doses of radiation are dangerous. Accumulating in the body, radioactive elements can eventually cause tumors and mutations, which also affects the offspring. Irradiation is especially dangerous for women whose germ cells do not renew themselves and are “stored” in the ovaries from the very birth of a girl.
Sources of danger
In connection with the recent events at the Fukushima nuclear power plant, seafood from the Pacific Ocean is of particular danger to the inhabitants of our country. In the next few years, it is advisable to stop eating fish such as: saury, pink salmon, chum salmon, sole, hake, pollock, halibut, as well as marine crustaceans, mollusks and seaweed (kelp, spirulina and their products), fish caviar (exception – cod caviar).
In our market there are representatives of the Atlantic Ocean and the northern seas. They should be given preference when planning a family menu.
To protect against radiation, there are dietary supplements. There are various drugs, which are mainly easily digestible iodine compounds. Absorbing “useful” iodine, the thyroid gland rejects radioactive. However, these drugs should only be taken on the advice of a doctor.
To protect against radiation, it is recommended to include foods rich in fiber, pectin, antioxidants and vitamins in the diet.