Interruption of pregnancy, or induced abortion, occupies an unreasonably large place among the methods of birth control, and the abortion rate in Russia remains one of the highest in the world. It is not always only women who are “guilty” of often terminating unwanted pregnancies. The absence of educational programs for young people does not contribute to the formation of a “culture of health”.
An alternative to abortion as a method of birth control is its prevention using various methods and means that prevent conception.
Contraceptive methods can be divided into highly effective and low effective.
Highly effective methods:
– Voluntary surgical sterilization (VCS);
– Method of lactational amenorrhea (LAM) under certain conditions.
Low-efficiency “traditional” methods:
– Barrier (mechanical);
– With the use of spermicides (chemical);
– Rhythmic (physiological);
– Coitus interruptus.
Surgical contraception (there is female and male sterilization).
Female sterilization is based on the creation of artificial obstruction of the fallopian tubes (tubal occlusion).
The mechanism of action is the impossibility of merging the egg with the spermatozoa due to an artificially created obstacle in their path. Sterility is achieved immediately after surgery.
Male sterilization (vasectomy) consists of cutting the vas deferens and is a relatively common method of irreversible male contraception due to its reliability and ease of implementation.
– Capsules for subcutaneous administration.
Modern pills are drugs with a very low content of hormones, providing almost 100% protection from pregnancy.
This method consists in taking birth control pills (oral contraceptives) containing synthetic or natural analogues of female sex hormones. Each tablet contains estrogen and progestogen. These hormones control the normal menstrual cycle.
Thus, the hormones that are part of birth control pills create a state of “rest” for the ovaries, in which new eggs do not mature, therefore, pregnancy cannot occur.
Modern hormonal contraceptives contain very low doses of hormones, which does not affect their effectiveness in any way, but increases safety with long-term use and is accompanied by a minimum number of side effects. Moreover, taking birth control pills reduces the incidence of ovarian and uterine cancer, ovarian cysts.
Injectable drugs (depot drugs)
The name itself suggests that the contraceptive is administered by intramuscular injection. The drug is administered by a medical professional once every 3 months or once every two months. The mechanism of action is similar to the mechanism of action of tablets. The efficiency is also high.
Subcutaneous implants (capsules)
For subcutaneous administration – an effective, reversible contraceptive for long-term contraception for 5 years. The introduction and removal of capsules is carried out by a doctor. Introduced into the shoulder area.
The contraceptive patch is a combined estrogen-progestin contraceptive. A patch of 20 cm2 provides a transdermal supply of the hormonal component per day. The patch is applied to one of 4 possible areas (buttocks; chest, except for the mammary glands; inner surface of the shoulder, lower abdomen) 1 time per week for 3 consecutive weeksafter which a break of long weeks is taken, after which a break of 1 week is taken.
intrauterine hormonal system
Currently, this system is widely used, made of polyethylene and having a T-shaped shape, 32 mm long. Around the vertical rod is a cylindrical container filled with levonorgestrel, which has a stronger effect on the endometrium than progesterone. The container is covered with a special membrane that provides continuous release of levonorgestrel in the amount of 20 mcg per day.
Intrauterine non-hormonal contraception
A method of long-term and reversible protection from pregnancy using a spiral inserted into the uterus.
The contraceptive effect of the IUD lies in the fact that the spiral makes it difficult for the fertilized egg to attach to the wall of the uterus (there are a lot of theories about the effect of the IUD on the woman’s body). IUDs are highly effective contraceptives and are recommended for women who have given birth (more often women who do not plan pregnancy) who have one partner.
The procedure for the insertion and removal of the IUD should be carried out in a gynecological office by a doctor, after an examination.
Barrier contraceptives (Condom; Diaphragms; Cervical caps; Sponges)
The mechanism of contraceptive action is based on the creation of a mechanical obstacle (barrier) in the cervix on the way of spermatozoa to the upper part of the female reproductive system.
Spermicides (creams, jellies, suppositories, tablets, films, foams)
They belong to the class of chemical contraceptives. The mechanism of action of spermicides is based on the ability of the active ingredient in their composition to destroy spermatozoa within a few seconds.
The contraceptive effect of spermicides is low.
Of all the existing methods of medical contraception, spermicides are the least effective.
Rhythmic (biological, physiological, calendar) method of contraception
A man is always ready to conceive a child, because in the male body there are always mature germ cells (spermatozoa) and there are many of them. And in a woman’s body, out of several hundred thousand immature eggs, one matures every month, capable of fertilization. It is secreted by the ovary approximately in the middle of the menstrual cycle, the average duration of which is 21 to 35 days. This process is called ovulation. The egg can remain viable for up to 2 days, and the spermatozoa for up to 5 days, therefore, it is during these 7 days that the probability of conception is highest. On other days, the likelihood of pregnancy is significantly reduced. In this regard, there are “safe” and “dangerous” days. If there are menstrual cycles of different lengths, the “dangerous” period can be calculated by subtracting 20 days from the shortest and 10 days from the longest cycle. For example, with a minimum cycle of 26 days and a maximum cycle of 30 days, the period from 6 to 20 days of the cycle will be considered “dangerous”.
The method is based on removing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation.
As you can see, all methods of protection against unwanted pregnancy have their positive and negative sides. Therefore, it is recommended to choose a method of contraception together with a gynecologist. Then the method of contraception will be more reliable, and the possible negative impact on the body is minimal.
Appreciate your health and treat it as carefully as possible!!!
For more information contact
to the clinic “Happy Family” at:
m. University, st. Minsk, d.1G, bldg. 3., phone: (095) 788-9-799.
The website address of the clinic “Happy Family” – www.happyfamily.ru
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