Strabismus

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Strabismus is a visual disorder in which there is a deviation of one or both eyes alternately from the considered stationary object.

Strabismus is imaginarywhen, as a result of an unusual cut of the eyes or a wide bridge of the nose, an impression of some asymmetry of the gaze is created. More often, vigilant parents of young children face the problem of imaginary strabismus. In the process of growth, facial features change and there is no trace of strabismus. but in children up to six months, real strabismus can be observed, which is not a pathology. In the process of growth, the function of the oculomotor muscles is normalized.

If strabismus persists after 6 months, an ophthalmologist should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment as soon as possible.

Strabismus can be congenital or acquired during life.. If the axis of the squinting eye deviates towards the temple when fixing the gaze of a fixed object, this is exotropiaif the axis is directed to the nose – converging. Sometimes there is paralytic strabismus, when the affected eye is not able to move in full and always lags behind the healthy one. This type of strabismus is considered more severe, leading to loss of vision in the diseased eye faster.

Causes of strabismus

  • poor vision of one of the eyes (for example, with congenital myopia, divergent strabismus is observed, and with hyperopia, it converges. The more pronounced myopia or hyperopia, the higher the likelihood of strabismus)
  • improper work of the oculomotor muscles (features of the anatomical structure and innervation, formed in utero, injuries)
  • diseases of the retina and optic nerve
  • disturbances in the functioning of the brain that controls eye movement (craniocerebral trauma, neuroinfections, cerebrovascular accident)

Read more: Why do eyes squint?

How does strabismus manifest itself?

Humans have binocular stereoscopic vision. This means that the picture obtained by both eyes is combined by the brain into a single image, thanks to which a person is able to see stereoscopically – to determine the distance to objects “by eye”. This requires friendly movement of the eyeballs, accurate fixation of the gaze on the image and the intersection of images on the retina.

What happens with strabismus? One eye is able to fix the object, while the other eye at this moment looks with a deviation. As a result the brain cannot put together two different images received by the eyes.

With strabismus, a person may experience double vision, blurred vision. If the degree of strabismus is significant, the brain reflexively “turns off” the image that it receives from the squinting eye. In this case, the person loses the ability to stereoscopic vision. The squinting eye gradually stops seeing “as unnecessary”, which is called amblyopia. If treatment is started on time, the function of the eye can be restored.

Treatment of strabismus

Any type of strabismus needs to be corrected, even if it does not cause noticeable discomfort. Since untreated strabismus always leads to a decrease, and sometimes to complete loss of vision.

For the treatment of strabismus, depending on its form, various methods are used. All of them are divided into conservative – therapeutic and surgical.

The main objectives of the therapeutic effect:

  1. restoration of vision in both eyes (correction of possible myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, amblyopia, improvement of visual acuity);
  2. training the oculomotor muscles, in order to make them work smoothly;
  3. special exercises for training binocular and stereoscopic vision.

Surgical correction is necessary mainly for the cosmetic correction of strabismus, it is aimed at strengthening or weakening certain oculomotor muscles.

With early treatment, especially with children, the results of strabismus treatment are very good, in some cases it is possible to avoid surgery.

Photo shutterstock.com

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