The importance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates for the body

Health Tips

It is impossible to overestimate the role of proteins, fats and carbohydrates for the body. After all, our body is made up of them! Today Goodshapetips talks about how to eat so as not to disturb such an important and fragile balance.

Proteins, fats and carbohydrates in our body

It has been reliably established that the human body consists of 19.6% proteins, 14.7% fats, 1% carbohydrates and 4.9% minerals. The remaining 59.8% is water. Maintaining the normal functioning of our body directly depends on the ratio of the most important nutrients, namely: in the daily diet, the presence of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in a ratio of 1:3:5 is necessary.

Unfortunately, most of us do not pay enough attention to a full and rational diet: someone overeats, someone undernourishes, and many even eat somehow, whatever they have to, on the go and in a hurry. In such a situation, it is almost impossible to control the amount of proteins, fats and carbohydrates that enter the body with food. But there is a real danger of a lack or excess of one or several of the most important elements at once, which ultimately has a very negative effect on our health!

The meaning and role of proteins

Even from school textbooks, we know that proteins are the main building material of our body, but in addition, they are also the basis of hormones, enzymes and antibodies. Thus, without their participation, the processes of growth, reproduction, digestion and immune defense are impossible.

Proteins are responsible for inhibition and excitation in the cerebral cortex, hemoglobin protein performs a transport function (carries oxygen), DNA and RNA (deoxyribonucleic and ribonucleic acids) provide the property of the protein to transmit hereditary information to cells, lysozyme regulates antimicrobial protection, and the protein that is part of the optic nerve provides the perception of light by the retina.

In addition, the protein contains essential amino acids, on which its biological value depends. A total of 80 amino acids are known, but only 8 of them are considered indispensable, and if all of them are contained in a protein molecule, then such a protein is called complete, animal in origin, and it is found in products such as meat, fish, eggs and milk.

Vegetable proteins are slightly less complete, more difficult to digest, because they have a fiber shell that interferes with the action of digestive enzymes. On the other hand, vegetable protein has a powerful anti-sclerotic effect.

To maintain the balance of amino acids, it is advisable to eat foods containing both animal and vegetable proteins, but the proportion of animal proteins should be at least 55%.

Protein deficiency is expressed in a decrease in body weight, dry skin, a decrease in the secretory activity of the gastrointestinal tract. At the same time, the functions of the sex glands, adrenal glands and thyroid gland are significantly weakened, hematopoietic processes are disturbed, immunity is reduced, signs of a violation of the central nervous system appear, in particular, memory decreases. In children, growth is disturbed, primarily due to the deterioration of bone formation.

But there is another side to this coin: excessive intake of protein in the body. In this case, one can observe a sharp increase in gastric secretion with its subsequent decrease. As a result, uric acid salts accumulate excessively in the tissues, which leads to the development of urolithiasis and joint disease.

Functions and benefits of fats

First of all, fat is a source of energy, so it is very important to regulate fat metabolism. To begin with, let’s figure out how and how fats differ from each other.

The composition of fats includes saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, the former have a high melting point, are called refractory and are less absorbed by the body. Unsaturated ones, on the other hand, melt easily and are easily absorbed. In our body, fat is contained in a structural form – it is part of the protoplasm of cells, and in a reserve form – it is deposited in tissues, including under the skin.

Saturated fatty acids, such as stearic, palmitic, caproic, butyric and others, are easily synthesized in the human body, have a low biological value, melt slowly, negatively affect fat metabolism, contribute to the accumulation of cholesterol and lead to the development of atherosclerosis. Such fats are found in lamb, pork and vegetable oils.

Unsaturated fatty acids cause more optimism: oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic acids are vital substances, increase the elasticity of the vascular wall, prevent thrombosis and regulate fat metabolism, are found in sunflower and corn oils, as well as in fish oil.

Excessive consumption of fats leads to excess cholesterol, the development of atherosclerosis, the deterioration of fat metabolism and the accumulation of excess weight. Lack of fat can cause impaired liver and kidney function, water retention in the body, and the development of dermatoses.

To optimize the diet, it is necessary to combine both vegetable and animal fats in a ratio of 30% to 70%, but with age, preference should be given to vegetable fats.

About carb balance

The name of the class of these compounds comes from the term “carbon hydrates”, proposed back in 1844 by Professor K. Schmidt.

Carbohydrates serve as the main source of energy, providing 58% of the needs of the human body. Vegetable products contain carbohydrates in the form of mono-, di- and polysaccharides.

  • Monosaccharides – glucose, fructose and galactose – are simple carbohydrates, they dissolve easily in water, are important for the formation of glycogen in the liver, nutrition of the brain and muscles, and maintaining normal blood sugar levels.
  • Disaccharides – sucrose, lactose and maltose – are sweet in taste, in the body they are split into two molecules of monosaccharides.
  • Polysaccharides – starch, fiber, glycogen – complex carbohydrates, unsweetened, insoluble in water. Gradually decomposing into monosaccharides, these carbohydrates provide the saturation of the body with energy, cause a feeling of satiety, with little or no increase in blood sugar.

It is very important that with insufficient intake of carbohydrates in the body, energy is formed from the supply of fats and even proteins. This is the principle of gradual and safe weight loss. But an excess of carbohydrates leads to their degeneration into fats, to cholesterol hyperproduction, the development of obesity, atherosclerosis and provokes the onset of diabetes.

So it turns out that for normal health, vivacity and a positive mood, our body needs not only a sufficient and optimal amount of calories, but also the right ratio of essential nutrients, which can be easily achieved with a well-composed diet. As you know, everything is good in moderation, and even a lack of nutrients is no better than their overabundance. For example, losing weight and not losing health is possible only with a balanced intake of all the necessary nutrients in the body.

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