The most common vision pathologies
According to experts, today there are about two thousand eye diseases. The most common: farsightedness, myopia, astigmatism, dry eye syndrome (it affects those who wear lenses for a long time or constantly look at the phone, laptop screen). With age, a number of older people are faced with cataracts – clouding of the lens, and glaucoma (increased intraocular pressure). In general, age-related vision problems cannot be avoided, but you can keep your finger on the pulse and treat in time. We add that a number of pathologies not related to vision are also reflected in our vision, for example, hypertension, diabetes mellitus.
So, with diabetes, typical changes in the fundus vessels occur, namely microaneurysms – thickenings on small vessels. At the same time, vision can be normal, but only for the time being, because the disease can turn into blindness. Yellow microscopic plaques on the eyelids are a sign of high cholesterol. The level of the latter must certainly be monitored by hypertensive patients, people with other cardiovascular diseases, since cholesterol often becomes one of the causes of strokes and heart attacks.
What to do if you began to notice a deterioration in vision with age and thought about glasses? Firstly, you can apply for diagnostics at any optics salon. Our experts assure that they will definitely be able to provide you with a primary analysis, as there is all the necessary equipment for adequate correction. But if you are 40+, then it would be more logical and correct to go to an ophthalmologist in a clinic or medical center for a complete primary diagnostic examination. Doctors warn: most eye diseases progress after 40 years and have few symptoms, then only full-fledged diagnostic examinations can fully determine the state of the visual functions of the eye. After that, it will become clear how you can correct your pathology: they will pick up an ointment, drops or lenses, glasses. In difficult cases, they will be referred for surgery. Operations are now done as quickly as possible, with minimal risk. In most cases, the patient is at home the same day.
Laser operations: pluses and one significant minus
Without a doubt, the most popular today are refractive laser surgery. The task of all existing methods of laser vision correction is to ensure that the rays of light passing through the eye have the ability to focus on the surface of the retina, and not before it, as in myopia, and not behind it, as in hypermetropia. This is achieved by changing the shape of the cornea with a laser beam, thus correcting its refractive power (refraction). The following laser vision correction methods are used:
photorefractive keratectomy (PRK);
laser subepithelial keratomileusis (LASEK / LASEK);
laser keratomileusis (LASIK / LASIK);
femtosecond laser vision correction ReLEx SMILE.
The techniques differ in some nuances, namely in how the corneal flap is separated. The whole treatment depends on such a small, at first glance, detail: from the appointment to possible complications.
Today, LASIK is the most popular laser vision correction technique. In most cases, doctors prescribe this particular operation, since it is able to eliminate or significantly correct the most common pathologies: astigmatism, myopia, hyperopia.
There are various modifications of it, among which I would like to separately mention Presby LASIK. Presby LASIK is used to treat presbyopia (when a person cannot see small print, small objects at close range – Ed.), which is experienced by people after 40 years of age. If presbyopia develops against the background of myopia, a person needs two pairs of glasses. During laser correction, the doctor gives the cornea the same shape that multifocal lenses have, which provides full vision at near and far distances.
ReLEx SMILE is a new generation laser vision correction technique. During the operation, the surgeon forms a kind of lens in the inner layers of the cornea – a lenticule, which is removed through a micro-incision 2-4 mm long. Thus, the doctor gives the cornea the desired shape, without resorting to the formation of a flap and its removal. Thanks to this, the ReLEx SMILE method can be performed even with the “dry eye” syndrome, a disease that is a contraindication for most laser surgeries. Another difference between ReLEx SMILE and PRK and LASIK is a shorter rehabilitation period. Perhaps the biggest drawback of this method is the high price (in Moscow clinics from 60 to 120 thousand rubles per eye – Approx. Ed.)
The acceptable minimum age at which laser vision correction is prescribed is 18 years. The maximum age of the patient in the list of contraindications for this procedure is not indicated. However, in most cases, after 45 years, it is undesirable, because laser correction is not able to stop age-related changes that occur with the lens.
How alcohol is bad for eyesight
Of course, before the operation is better not to bring. If we are not talking about congenital pathologies of vision, then it is in our power to take care of the eyes. To do this, it is important to form the right habits from childhood:
When working at close range (for example, at a laptop), you need to take breaks every 30-40 minutes, be sure to look into the distance while resting;
Who would have thought, but walking is very useful for vision, so be sure to include them in your daily routine – on the weekends, you can definitely afford a walk in the park or forest. This also includes engaging in feasible sports;
Watch your posture not only while sitting with a book or phone in your hand, but also during all household activities (cooking, cleaning). The ideal distance from the eyes to a desk, book or gadget is the length of the forearm, no less;
Nutrition should be predominantly correct – with a predominance of protein foods, vegetables. But sweets, fast food, alcohol on a permanent basis are harmful here too – they remove fluid from the body, disrupt metabolism and contribute to an increase in intraocular pressure.
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