Every woman, regardless of age, has heard about breast diseases. The most common pathology of this organ is mastopathy. Mastopathy or fibrocystic disease is a dishormonal benign disease of the mammary glands, characterized by hyperplasia (excessive growth) of its tissue.
As you know, the tissue components that form this organ include: glandular (produces milk), fibrous (structural frame of the gland) and fatty (normally replaces the two previous ones with age). Surely you have heard from doctors such diagnoses as glandular mastopathy or fibrous mastopathy. With untimely detection and treatment of this disease, its progression to breast cancer is possible.
It is known that not all women are equally at risk of developing mastopathy. A number of factors have been established that characterize the individual predisposition of a woman to this disease. These risk factors include:
heredity (the presence of breast cancer in the mother or sister);
gynecological and endocrine diseases (uterine fibroids, endometriosis, elevated blood levels of the hormone prolactin, thyroid pathology);
absence of pregnancy and childbirth;
late first pregnancy;
the birth of a large fetus (4 kg or more);
artificial termination of pregnancy (in women who have had 3 or more abortions, the risk of mastopathy increases by 7 times);
absence, short duration (less than 1 month) and a very long period of breastfeeding (more than a year);
more often the disease develops in the left mammary gland (this is due to less mobility of the left arm and more frequent feeding of the left breast;
there is a connection between mechanical trauma and the subsequent development of breast disease;
transferred purulent or postpartum mastitis;
dietary factors (fatty high-calorie foods, strong tea, coffee, chocolate contribute to the occurrence of mastopathy);
It is necessary for every woman to carry out prevention of the development of mastopathy, especially in the presence of several predisposing factors. After all, as you know, any disease is easier to prevent than to cure.
Therefore, in order to prevent the occurrence of mastopathy, pay attention to the following:
food regimen that limits the consumption of fatty foods, coffee, chocolate, tea;
prophylactic intake of vitamins (A, B, C, E, P) and adaptogens (eleutherococcus extract, aralia, ginseng tincture)
rational hormonal contraception, avoidance of abortion
with painful engorgement of the mammary glands before menstruation – taking weak diuretics (lingonberry leaves, diuretic tea).
The most important point in the prevention of mastopathy is self-examination of the mammary glands, which is available to every woman.
It is recommended to carry out independently 1 time per month in the 1st week after menstruation, since during this period the mammary glands are not enlarged and not tense.
The technique of self-examination includes inspection and palpation (palpation).
Inspection. You need to stand in front of the mirror with your hands down, then with your hands up. In doing so, pay attention to the following signs:
whether there is retraction or swelling of the skin area;
whether there is a retraction of the nipple or a shortening of the radius of the areola;
whether there is a change in the usual shape and size of one of the mammary glands;
whether there is yellowish or bloody discharge from the nipple or unusual changes on the nipple
Palpation (feeling). It is carried out in the supine position. Under the shoulder blades, you need to put a small roller or pillow so that the chest is slightly raised. Feel each mammary gland with the opposite hand (right – left, and vice versa). The examination should be carried out gently, using the entire length of the fingers and palm. Avoid rough palpation and grasping of a large area of breast tissue, as this can give the impression of a lump that is not really there. The study is carried out in three positions: hand up behind the head, hand to the side, hand along the body. With the fingers of the opposite hand, feel the outer half of the breast, starting from its nipple and moving outwards and upwards to the side of the chest wall. Then feel all areas of the inner half of the mammary gland, starting from the nipple and moving towards the sternum. Determine if there are any nodes, seals or changes in the structure of the breast tissue or in the thickness of its skin.
Next, you should feel the axillary and supraclavicular areas. With moderate pressure between the fingers of the areola and nipple, check for any discharge from the nipple.
In case of any suspicion, it is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible! In the diagnosis of breast diseases, the most informative methods today are: breast radiography (mammography) and ultrasound.
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