Urinalysis (OAM)

Health Tips

General urine analysis (OAM) is a study of the composition and properties of urine for the purpose of primary diagnosis of the pathology of the urinary system and general diseases of the body.

Urine consists of water with various impurities, most of which are uric acid and salts. During the day, the composition of urine may change.

The composition and properties of urine can vary greatly depending on the nature of the diet and lifestyle of a person. An isolated deviation from the norm of one of the indications of a general urinalysis without clinical manifestations does not always indicate a disease.

A healthy person should give urine for a general analysis 1-2 times a year. Additional reasons for passing the analysis are any acute diseases, exacerbation of chronic processes, pathology of the urinary system. A general urine test is also carried out to monitor the effectiveness of the treatment.

How to collect urine for general analysis?

On the eve of urine collection, you should not take diuretics, eat foods that can change the color and smell of urine.

For general analysis, the first morning portion of urine is collected. For this, it is necessary immediately after lifting to carry out a thorough toilet of the genitourinary organs. After that, urination is performed in a clean jar with a volume of 50-100 ml. The first 1-2 seconds you need to urinate into the toilet, then substituting a jar. The jar should not be sterilized before collecting urine, it is enough to wash it with warm water and soap.

For women, it is recommended that during the collection of urine, cover the entrance to the vagina with a clean cotton swab to avoid getting its discharge into the urine, which can greatly distort the results of the study. It is not recommended to collect urine during menstruation.

After collecting the material, the jar is tightly closed, and, within 1.5-2 hours, delivered to the laboratory for research.

Read more: Norm and deviations

Normal urinalysis values

Microscopy of urine sediment.

The sediment may contain up to 2 erythrocytes per field of view, leukocytes in men – 0-3 per field of view, in women 0-5 per field of view. Normally, there may be a slight presence of hyaline cylinders, mucus, single cells of squamous epithelium, salt in a small amount.

Interpretation of the results of a general urine test

Such indicators of color, smell, reaction of urine can vary greatly. For example, when drinking a large amount of liquid the day before, the color of the urine may become lighter, beets often stain the urine red. When taking certain medications, urine can also change color: yellow-orange when taking B vitamins, rich rusty or brown color when taking nitrofuran antibiotics, dark color when taking metronidazole, red color when using rifampicin, and so on.

If your diet contains mainly plant foods, then urine will be alkaline, if meat is acidic.

Seasonings have a significant effect on the smell of urine: horseradish, onion, garlic and others. If the urine has a sharp ammonia smell, this indicates an inflammatory process in the genitourinary system, if the smell of acetone or rotten fruit indicates the possible development of diabetes.

With excessive use on the eve of a large amount of sweet, glucose may appear in the urine. In this case, a repeat of the general urine test is necessary.

The rest of the indicators are very constant, and the attending physician should deal with the interpretation of their deviations.

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