Menstruation is a cyclic rejection of the functional layer of the endometrium (uterine lining), accompanied by uterine bleeding.
Menstruation occurs as a result of hormonal changes in the body associated with the reverse development of the corpus luteum, which was formed in the ovaries after the release of the egg.
The normal menstrual cycle is a cycle of 21-35 days (usually 28 days), accompanied by menstruation lasting 3-7 days with moderate blood loss (80-100 ml, no clots).
In healthy women, menstruation does not cause any significant changes in health and mood, does not disrupt the habitual Lifestyle and does not reduce performance.
Menstruation is a reflection of women’s health, and its violations are a signal from the body that not everything is fine.
Control of menstruation provides the broadest opportunities for self-diagnosis, timely detection of various gynecological and general diseases, pregnancy planning.
Therefore, any woman must keep a calendar of menstruation.
one. Changing the duration of the menstrual cycle: cycle lengthening – more than 35 days (opsomenorrhea) and shortening – less than 21 days (proyomenorrhea).
2. Change in the duration of menstruation: shortening less than 3 days – oligomenorrhea and lengthening more than 7 days – polymenorrhea, up to incessant bleeding.
3. Change in the volume of blood loss: scanty or too heavy periods (excretion of blood with clots).
4. Complete absence of periods for more than six months – amenorrhea.
five. Painful menstruation – algomenorrhea.
6. Irregular menstruation and intermenstrual bleeding.
Causes of menstrual irregularities
one. Physiological disorders of the menstrual cycle can be observed: during the formation of menstrual function (11-15 years), at menopausal age (45-50 years), as well as during pregnancy (normal – amenorrhea) and lactation.
In connection with hormonal changes during these periods, all the above menstruation disorders are possible, which gradually returns to normal or stops completely in postmenopause.
2. One of the main reasons is violation of neurohumoral regulation of menstrual function.
This violation can occur at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovaries, uterus. Sometimes the cause is dysfunction thyroid gland, adrenal or pancreas.
3. Menstrual disorders can occur with anatomical changes and damage to the genital organs: congenital malformations, infantilism, after injuries and infections, in the presence of benign or malignant neoplasms, cervical erosion, etc.
4. Common causes of disruption of the normal menstrual cycle are: stress, mental and physical overwork, strong climatic influences, unfavorable social and living conditions, etc.
A sharp negative impact on the menstrual function has exhaustion or obesity, lack of vitamins, micro- and macroelements.
Young girls, whose hormonal system has not yet been fully formed, are especially susceptible to the listed factors.
five. Can cause menstrual irregularities inflammatory processes (specific and non-specific infectious diseases, infectious complications of abortions, injuries, surgical interventions, sexually transmitted diseases), as well as common diseases (chronic pathology of the cardiovascular system, liver, hematopoietic system).
6. Increased work hazard (exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, etc.).
Menstrual function is influenced by a whole range of factors, and it is sometimes very difficult to find out which of them caused the violation.
This requires versatile diagnostics using laboratory and instrumental research methods.
But there are groups of the most striking symptoms, which, with a certain degree of probability, make it possible to suspect a particular pathology.
Menstruation is infrequent, usually scanty and short or absent altogether
Disorder may occur against the background of overwork, stress, exhaustion of the body, severe inflammatory process, general or mental illness.
1. Associated symptoms: there is lethargy, drowsiness, decreased memory and performance, weight gain, swelling, slowing heart rate, lowering body temperature.
2. Associated symptoms: in the past – inflammatory diseases of the uterus, abortions, surgical interventions.
3. Associated symptoms: strong headaches, increased blood pressure, progressive visual impairment, obesity, bluish-purple streaks on the skin (stretch marks), increased hair growth on the face and trunk, etc.
4. Associated symptoms: complaints occur at the age of 35-37 years or earlier, there are symptoms characteristic of menopause (hot flashes, sweating, weakness, fatigue, headaches and heart pain, pressure fluctuations, etc.).
5. Associated symptoms: periods are irregular, sometimes absent for several months, and may be painful. Overweight, increased body hair growth, acne, excessive oiliness of the skin and hair.
Menstruation became very heavy (with clots) and prolonged
Most often (especially at a young age) the reason is hormonal disorders.
These can be ovarian dysfunctions (premature maturation of the egg and early ovulation, premature involution of the corpus luteum, short-term persistence of the follicle, anovulatory cycles), pathology of the hypothalamic-pituitary system, etc.
Abundant and prolonged menstruation may be a side effect of an intrauterine contraceptive.
1. Associated symptoms: there is increased bleeding: frequent nosebleeds, bleeding gums during brushing teeth, bruises (hematomas) on the body easily appear, hemorrhages in the joint cavity, under the sclera of the eye, etc.
2. Associated symptoms: menstruation is accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen and lower back of varying intensity, intermenstrual and contact spotting, often leucorrhoea. There may be pain during sexual intercourse.
Bleeding occurred suddenly against the background of a delay,
accompanied by severe pain in the lower abdomen,
pallor, cold sweat, possible loss of consciousness
It is urgent to call an ambulance, the arriving doctors must inform about the previous delay.
A rupture of the fallopian tube is possible against the background of a progressive ectopic pregnancy, which is usually accompanied by massive internal bleeding, hemorrhagic shock and is life threatening.
Sharply painful menstruation, accompanied by
nausea, vomiting, stool disorders, etc.
1. Associated symptoms: pains appear at a young age with the advent of the first menstruation.
2. Associated symptoms: violations occur at the age of 30-40 years. Accompanied by intermenstrual bleeding.
Perhaps the cause of menstrual irregularities in the adhesive process of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis or a chronic inflammatory process.
3. Associated symptoms: In the first days of menstruation, diarrhea or constipation is observed.